A nonvolatile acid (also known as a fixed acid or metabolic acid) is an acid produced from sources other than carbon dioxide, and is not excreted by the lungs. They are produced from an incomplete metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. All acids produced in the body are nonvolatile except carbonic acid, which is the sole volatile acid. Common nonvolatile acids in humans are lactic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Humans produce about 1 - 1.5 mmoles of H+ per kilogram per day. The nonvolatile acids are excreted by the kidneys. Lactic acid is usually completely metabolized by the body, and is thus not excreted from the body.
- "Acid-Base Physiology". Retrieved 2007-05-30.