Nephrotic syndrome epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yazan Daaboul, Serge Korjian

Overview

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome has an incidence of 2-7 cases per 100,000 and a prevalence of 16 cases per 100,000.[1] Nephrotic syndrome may affect children and adults alike. There is no age or ethnic predominance. The prevalence of nephrotic syndrome in children has a 2 to 1 male to female ratio.[2]

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence and Prevalence

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome has an incidence of 2-7 cases per 100,000 and a prevalence of 16 cases per 100,000.[1]

Approximately 70-90% of children less than 10 years of age with nephrotic syndrome are diagnosed with minimal change disease (MCD), a common form of primary glomerulonephritis characterized by normal glomeruli on light microscopy and by podocyte effacement on electron microscopy.[3][4][5] In older children, MCD still accounts for 50% of nephrotic syndrome.[4][5] In adults, the prevalence of MCD is much lower. Adult-onset MCD only comprises 10-15% of all cases of MCD. On the other hand, the incidence of other primary glomerulonephritides and other causes of secondary nephrotic syndrome, such as infections, malignancies, and vasculitides are much more common.

Age

Nephrotic syndrome may affect children and adults alike. There is no age or ethnic predominance. In total, the incidence of nephrotic syndrome is the same for adults and for children. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome has an incidence of 2-7 cases per 100,000 and a prevalence of 16 cases per 100,000.[1]

Gender

According to observational studies, the prevalence of nephrotic syndrome in children has a 2 to 1 male to female ratio.[2] In adults, however, the prevalence is the same in both genders.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Eddy AA, Symons JM (2003). "Nephrotic syndrome in childhood". Lancet. 362 (9384): 629–39. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14184-0. PMID 12944064.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The primary nephrotic syndrome in children. Identification of patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome from initial response to prednisone. A report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children". J Pediatr. 98 (4): 561–4. 1981. PMID 7205481.
  3. Cho MH, Hong EH, Lee TH, Ko CW (2007). "Pathophysiology of minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis". Nephrology (Carlton). 12 Suppl 3: S11–4. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1797.2007.00875.x. PMID 17995521.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Cameron JS (1996). "Nephrotic syndrome in the elderly". Semin Nephrol. 16 (4): 319–29. PMID 8829270.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Cameron JS, Turner DR, Ogg CS, Sharpstone P, Brown CB (1974). "The nephrotic syndrome in adults with 'minimal change' glomerular lesions". Q J Med. 43 (171): 461–88. PMID 4422336.

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