Nausea and vomiting causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vishnu Vardhan Serla M.B.B.S. [2] Kiran Singh, M.D. [3]

Overview

Life threatening causes of nausea and vomiting include acute coronary syndrome, anaphylaxis, and heart failure. Other common causes of nausea and vomiting are food allergies, food poisoning, gastroenteritis, and gastroesophageal reflux.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Acute Coronary Syndromes, amyloidosis, anaphylaxis, angina pectoris, aortic arch anomalies, cardiac arrhythmia, cerebral aneurysm, cerebral arteriovenous malformation, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypercalcemia, hypertension, hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia
Chemical / poisoning 1,2-Dichloroethene, 2-Ethylhexanol, 1,3-Dichloropropene, abrin, aconitine, adamsite, ammonium chloride, amnesic shellfish poisoning, arsenic Poisoning, barium oxalate, barium sulfate, butanethiol, camphor poisoning, capsaicin, carbon monoxide poisoning, chloromethane, cicuta, ciguatera, cinchonism, coprinopsis atramentaria, cyanogen, daunorubicin, diethyl ether, digitalis purpurea, dioxathion, dioxin, endosulfan, ergotism, fluoride poisoning, fluoxymesterone, ginkgo, green tobacco sickness, heavy metal ingestion, Iodomethane, Iron poisoning, Iron(II) sulfate, lead poisoning, lenvatinib, lewisite, lindane, lithium, lobelia, metal fume fever, mushroom poisoning, N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate, nerve agent, nicotine poisoning, N-Nitroso-N-methylurea, PFPP, pesticide, potassium bromide, phytohaemagglutinin, smoke inhalation, snakebites, temik, theobromine
Dermatologic Abscess, decompression sickness, exercise urticaria
Drug Side Effect 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-7, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, 5-MeO-AMT, ABVD, acamprosate calcium, acetaminophen, acetoxyketobemidone, acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid,acyclovir, aclarubicin, actinomycin D, alatrofloxacin, albuterol, aldesleukin, alemtuzumab, allylprodine, alpha-Methyltryptamine, alprazolam, altretamine, amifostine, amineptine, aminocaproic acid, aminoglutethimide, aminopterin, aminosalicylic acid, amitriptyline, amoxicillin, amphotericin B, amrinone, amyl nitrite, anadenanthera peregrina, analgesic, anastrozole, anesthesia, anticonvulsants, antigout, antihistamine, antihypertensives,antiretroviral drug, apremilast, apomorphine hydrochloride, aprepitant, aripiprazole, armodafinil, asparaginase, aspirin, atomoxetine, atosiban, atropine, auranofin, axitinib, azacitidine, azathioprine, azithromycin, aztreonam, barbiturate, barium Sulfate, basiliximab, bCG vaccine, belladonna alkaloid benzodiazepine, benztropine, benzphetamine, benzylpiperazine, betaine, beta-lactam antibiotic, bevacizumab, beta blockers, bezafibrate, bicalutamide, bleomycin, blinatumomab, botulinum antitoxin, bortezomib, bosutinib, botulinum toxin, bromelain, bromocriptine, bromomethane, bronchodilator, butalbital, buprenorphine, bupropion, busulfan, butanethiol, butorphanol, cabergoline, calcitonin, calcitriol, calcium carbamide, calcium channel antagonists, capecitabine, capsaicin, carbamates, carbidopa and levodopa, carboplatin, carmustine, carprofen, carvedilol, caspofungin, cefaclor, cefixime, ceritinib, cetrorelix, cefoperazone sodium, cefotaxime sodium, cefotetan disodium, cefprozil, ceftibuten, cefuroxime, ceftibuten, ceftaroline fosamil, cefuroxime, cephalosporin, cetuximab, cetuximab injection , cevimeline, chelation therapy, chemotherapy, chloral hydrate, chlordiazepoxide, chloromethane, chlorothiazide, chlorpropamide, CHOP, cimicifuga racemosa, ciprofloxacin, cisplatin, citalopram, cladribine, clarithromycin, clindamycin, clofarabine, clofibrate, clomifene, clorazepate, clozapine, cobicistat, co-codamol, codeine, colchicine, colestyramine, combined oral contraceptive pill, conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene, contraceptive patch, crizotinib, cyclobenzaprine, cyclophosphamide, cytisine, cytarabine, cytarabine liposome, cytisine,capsaicin, dacarbazine , dactinomycin , dalfampridine, danazol, dantrolene, daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa Injection , darunavir , daunorubicin , deferasirox , deferiprone, defibrotide, denileukin diftitox, desmopressin, dexamethasone, dexchlorpheniramine, dexrazoxane, dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, dextromethorphan, dextropropoxyphene, diazepam, diazinon, dicofol, didanosine, diethyl ether, diethylcathinone, diflunisal, digitoxin, digoxin, diethylcathinone, diethyl ether, dimercaprol, dinoprostone, dipyridamole, disulfiram , diuretic, docetaxel , dofetilide , dolasetron , donepezil , doripenem, dosulepin hydrochloride, doxorubicin hydrochloride, doxycycline, drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol, DTPA, duloxetine, ecallantide, eculizumab, efavirenz, elvitegravir, enfuvirtide, entecavir, epinephrine (aerosol), ergometrine, ergotamine, eribulin, erlotinib, erythromycin, estradiol valerate and estradiol valerate/dienogest, eslicarbazepine acetate, ethcathinone, ethchlorvynol, ethosuximide, ethynodiol diacetate and ethinyl estradiol, ethyl carbamate, emetine, emtricitabine, rilpivirine hydrochloride, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, endosulfan, entacapone, efavirenz, enfuvirtide, entecavir , elosulfase alfa, epinephrine (aerosol), epirubicin hydrochloride, epoetin Alfa , eribulin, eliglustat, erlotinib , erythromycin, estradiol, estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives) , ethcathinone, ethchlorvynol, ethyl carbamate, ethylmorphine, etidronate , etodolac, etoposide, exemestane, exenatide, felbamate, fentanyl Oral Transmucosal fexofenadine, filgrastim, fioricet, flavoxate, fludarabine phosphate, fluorouracil, flurazepam,Flurbiprofen, floxuridine, fluconazole, flucytosine, fludarabine Phosphate, flunisolide, fluorescein sodium, fluorouracil , flurazepam, flurbiprofen, flutamide , Fluticasone, foscarnet sodium, fulvestrant, galantamine, gallium nitrate, gabapentin, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, gatifloxacin , gefitinib , gemcitabine, gemeprost, general anaesthesia, gestrinone, glimepiride, glipizide, glucagon, glucarpidase, glycylcycline, glycopyrrolate, glyburide, glyburide and Metformin, glycylcycline, goserelin , Graft-versus-host disease, granisetron , grifulvin V, guaifenesin, H1 antihistamine, herkinorin, heroin, hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide, hydrocodone, hydrocodone bitartrate and homatropine methylbromide, hydrocortisone, hydromorphone, hydroxycarbamide, hydroxychloroquine, hydroxocobalamin, hydroxyurea, hydroxyzine, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Ibogaine, Ibuprofen, Ibrutinib, Ibritumomab tiuxetan, Idarubicin , Idursulfase, Ifosfamide , Imatinib , Imiglucerase, Imipenem, Indinavir, Interferon gamma, Interferon alfa-2b, Iodomethane, Irinotecan hydrochloride, Isoniazid, Isoproterenol (aerosol), Isopropyl alcohol, Isosorbide mononitrate, Isotretinoin, Itraconazole, Ivacaftor, Ivermectin, Ixabepilone, kaopectate, ketorolac, lacosamide, lactulose, lamivudine, lanreotide, lansoprazole, lanthanum carbonate, lapatinib, lenalidomide, letrozole , leuprolide , levodopa and carbidopa , levofloxacin, levonorgestrel, lidocaine (ointment), lithium nitrate, lomefloxacin hydrochloride, lorcaserin, lopinavir, loprazolam, lorazepam, lovaza, malaria prophylaxis, mazindol, mechlorethamine , medazepam, megestrol , melarsoprol, melphalan , mercaptopurine, meropenem, mesalamine , mescaline, mesna, metformin, methadone, methenamine, methotrexate, methylergonovine, methylketobemidone, methylphenidate, methyprylon, metronidazole, micafungin sodium, mifepristone, milk of magnesia, milnacipran hydrochloride, miltefosine, mirtazapine, misoprostol, mitomycin , mitotane, mitoxantrone, moclobemide, monocrotophos, morphine, motofen, moxifloxacin, mycophenolic acid, nabilone, nafcillin, nalbuphine, nalmefene, naloxone, naphthalene, naproxen sodium, natamycin, niacin/simvastatin, nicorandil, nilotinib, nilutamide, nintedanib, nitrazepam, nitrofurantoin, nizatidine, norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol, norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol, norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol, olanzapine , olsalazine, omeprazole , ondansetron, opioid, oprelvekin, oritavancin, oseltamivir , oxaliplatin, oxamniquine, oxazepam, oxcarbazepine, oxybutynin , oxycodone and aspirin , oxytocin, Paclitaxel, palbociclib, paliperidone , palonosetron, panitumumab, pantoprazole, papaverine, paromomycin sulfate, pazopanib hydrochloride, paracetamol, paroxetine, pasireotide, pegaspargase , pemetrexed , penicillin, pentamidine, pentavalent antimonial, pentetic acid, pentostatin , pergolide , perhexiline, pertuzumab, pirfenidone, piroxicam, phenelzine, phenoxymethylpenicillin, phentermine, phenylephrine, physostigmine, pholcodine, pilocarpine, pioglitazone , piribedil, plerixafor, plicamycin ,posaconazole , potassium chloride, potassium citrate, praziquantel, pregabalin , primaquine phosphate, potassium iodide, primaquineprocainamide , procarbazine , prochlorperazine, progesterone, propiram, propylketobemidone, prosidol, protriptyline , pyrantel pamoatepyrazinamide, pyridostigmine, quetiapine , quinupristin/dalfopristin, radium chloride, ramelteon, ranolazine , ranitidine, rasburicase, rasagiline , reserpine, ribavirin, rifabutin, rifaximin, risedronate , ritonavir, rituximab , rivastigmine , rizatriptan , ropinirole , roflumilast, rotigotine, roxithromycin, rubbing alcohol, salsalate , saquinavir mesylate, sarin, sargramostim, stavudine, sativex, saxagliptin hydrochloride and Metformin hydrochloride, secretin human, secobarbital, selegiline , seliciclib, serotonin, sibutramine, sipuleucel-T, sodium oxybate, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, sodium stibogluconate, sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, solanine, spironolactone, Stiripentol, streptozocin, streptomycin, streptozocin, sufentanil, Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (oral), sultiame, sumatriptan, sunitinib , suramin,tacrolimus, tapentadol, tedizolid, telavancin hydrochloride, telbivudine , telithromycin , taliglucerase alfatemozolomide, teniposide , teriparatide, tetracaine, tetraferric tricitrate decahydrate, tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrozoline, tetramethylsuccinonitrile, tetrodotoxin, thallous Chloride Tl 201, thiabendazole, thiethylperazine, thioguanine, thiotepa , thyroid medication, tigecycline, tocopherol, tolcapone , tolmetin, topiramate, tolbutamide, topotecan hydrochloride, toremifene, tralomethrin, tramadol, trametinib dimethyl sulfoxide, trandolapril, trastuzumab, trazodone, tretinoin, triamterene, triazolam, triclofos, tricyclic antidepressant, trifluoperazine, trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine, trimeperidine, trimethobenzamide, trimetrexate Glucuronate, tropisetron, trovafloxacin mesylate, valaciclovir, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valproic acid , vancomycin, varenicline, venlafaxine, vicodin, vidarabine, vigabatrin, vilazodone, viloxazine, vinblastine , vinorelbine Tartrate, vismodegib, von Willebrand factor, voriconazole, vorinostat, vortioxetine, zafirlukast, zidovudine, zolpidem , zopiclone, zoledronate
Ear Nose Throat Balance disorder, decompression sickness, ear infection, epistaxis, glaucoma, labyrinthitis, Ménière's disease, pharyngitis
Endocrine Acromegaly, addison's disease, adrenal failure, adrenal insufficiency, amyloidosis, anorexia nervosa, carcinoid tumours and carcinoid syndrome, contraceptive patch, diabetic gastroparesis, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetes mellitus,emergency contraception, gangrene, gestational diabetes, hormone replacement therapy (trans),hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, prolactinoma, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone(SIADH), thyrotoxicosis, estrogen and progestin, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
Environmental Bothrops bite, bromomethane, carbon monoxide poisoning, dioxin, heat stroke, hyperthermia
Gastroenterologic Achalasia, acute abdomen, accessory pancreas , acute fatty liver of pregnancy, acute pancreatitis, adjustable gastric band, afferent loop syndrome, alcoholic Hepatitis, alcoholism, anastomosis stenosis, anorexia nervosa, appendicitis, bacterial gastroenteritis, beef tapeworm, biliary colic, blastocystosis, bowel obstruction, brucella, bulimia nervosa, caecitis, carcinoid tumours and carcinoid syndrome, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, cholecystitis, cholecystolithiasis, ciguatera, colorectal cancer, congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, Crohn's disease, cryptosporidium parvum, cyclic vomiting syndrome, cyclospora cayetanensis, diabetic gastroparesis, dientamoebiasis, diverticulitis, dumping syndrome, enteric Neuropathy, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, epiploic appendagitis, esophageal achalasia, esophageal cancer, esophageal diverticulum, esophageal stenosis, esophagitis, femoral hernia, food allergies, food poisoning, fundic gland polyposis, functional dyspepsia, gastric carcinoma, gastric outlet obstruction, gastritis, gastrocolic fistula, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastrointestinal perforation, gastroparesis, giardiasis, helicobacter pylori infection, Hellp syndrome, hematemesis, hepatic coma, hepatic porphyria, hepatitis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis D, hepatitis E, hepatobiliary disease, hepatotoxicity , hernia, hirschsprung disease, Ileus, Intussusception (medical disorder), Irritable bowel syndrome, Ischemic bowel, Mesenteric ischemia, peptic ulcer, peritonitis, pyloric stenosis, Reye's syndrome, Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, Small intestine cancer, traveler's diarrhea
Genetic Acute intermittent porphyria, congenital malformation, Down syndrome, episodic ataxia, familial hemiplegic migraine, fundic gland polyposis, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, slone's disease
Hematologic HELLP syndrome, hemorrhage, mastocytosis, porphyria, splenic infarction, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Iatrogenic Essure, dumping syndrome, high doses of ionizing radiation, Instillation abortion, minimally Invasive thorasic spinal fusion
Infectious Disease Acute infections, acute viral nasopharyngitis (common cold), AIDS, aseptic meningitis, astrovirus, bacillus cereus infection, bacterial gastroenteritis, barcoo fever, beef tapeworm, blastocystosis, brucella, colorado tick fever, community-acquired pneumonia, croup, cryptosporidium parvum infection, cyclospora cayetanensis infection, dengue fever, diarrheal shellfish poisoning, dientamoebiasis, diphtheria, Duke's disease, ebola, giardia lamblia, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, helicobacter pylori infection, henipavirus, hepatitis B, hepatitis D, hepatitis E, hookworm, human ehrlichiosis, Influenza, Intestinal parasite, lassa fever, listeria monocytogenes, malaria, meningococcemia, Naegleria fowleri, norovirus, norwalk Virus, pfiesteria piscicida, poliomyelitis, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Scarlet fever, shigella, Sporotrichosis, staphylococcal enteritis, tularemia, vibrio parahaemolyticus, West Nile virus, waterborne diseases, Yellow fever
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Decompression sickness
Neurologic Acoustic neuroma, airsickness, altitude sickness, arachnoid cyst, aseptic meningitis, autonomic neuropathy, balance disorder, benign intracranial hypertension ,brain stem gliomas, brain tumor, cerebellar stroke, cerebral aneurysm, cerebral arteriovenous malformation, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebrovascular disease, cerebral oedema,cerebral shunt , cerebrovascular disease, ciguatera, concussion, craniopharyngioma, cyclic vomiting syndrome, decompression sickness, encephalitis, enteric neuropathy, ependymoma, epidural haemorrhage, episodic ataxia, familial hemiplegic migraine, glioblastoma multiforme, glioma, heavy metal ingestion, hemicrania continua, hepatic coma, hydrocephalus, La Crosse encephalitis, Sea sickness, subdural hematoma, Tabes dorsalis, vagal episode, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, vestibular neuritis
Nutritional / Metabolic 5-hydroxytryptophan, acute intermittent porphyria, amnesic shellfish poisoning, amyloidosis, bromelain, cicuta, cimicifuga racemosa,coprinopsis atramentaria, food allergies, food intolerance, food poisoning, galactosemia, ginger, hereditary fructose intolerance, hypercalcemia, hypermagnesemia, hypervitaminosis A, hypervitaminosis, hypocalcemia, hypocholermia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, ketogenic diet, lactose intolerance, metabolic acidosis, pyridoxine deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic Acute fatty liver of pregnancy, breastfeeding complications, childbirth, contraceptive patch, endometriosis, emergency contraception,estrogen and progestin, essure, gestational diabetes, HELLP syndrome, hydatidiform mole, hyperemesis gravidarum, ovarian cyst, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, ovarian torsion, pregnancy, salpingitis, twisted ovarian cyst
Oncologic Acoustic neuroma, brain stem gliomas, brain tumor, cancer, carcinoid tumours and carcinoid syndrome, colorectal cancercraniopharyngioma, ependymoma, esophageal cancer, gastric carcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, glioma, Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, osteosarcoma, prolactinoma, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Opthalmologic Acute angle-closure glaucoma, glaucoma, refractive error
Overdose / Toxicity 1,2-Dichloroethene, 1,3-Dichloropropene, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-7, abrin, alcoholism, alcohol withdrawal, beleric, cinchonism, ethanol abuse, hangover, heavy metal ingestion, heroin, orellanine, Reye's syndrome, marine toxins, PMA
Psychiatric Alcohol Withdrawal, alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, anxiety, anxiety disorders, bulimia nervosa, chronic fatigue syndrome, combat stress reaction, depression, ethanol abuse, hangover, sexual fetish (emetophilia), SSRI discontinuation syndrome
Pulmonary Acute viral nasopharyngitis (common cold), altitude sickness, anaphylaxis, aortic arch anomalies, community acquired pneumonia, croup, decompression sickness, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, lower respiratory tract infection, pulmonary embolism, pharyngitis
Renal / Electrolyte Dehydration, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypercalcemia, hypermagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypocholermia, hypokalemia, hyponatraemia, Interstitial nephritis, nutcracker syndrome, pyelonephritis, renal colic, renal failure, renal stones, urinary tract infections
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Amyloidosis, anaphylaxis, chronic fatigue syndrome, Crohn's disease, food allergies, food intolerance, Graft-versus-host disease, scleroderma, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, typhoid Vaccine, HIV
Sexual HIV
Trauma Head trauma, hemorrhage, post-concussion syndrome
Urologic Acute prostatitis, testicular rupture, testicular torsion, urinary tract infections, urolithiasis
Miscellaneous Anadenanthera peregrina, exercise induced nausea, extreme pain, foreign bodies, sleep deprivation, soapwort, ulcers, water intoxication, cyclic vomiting syndrome, DTPA, ginkgo

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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References


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