Methscopolamine bromide

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Methscopolamine bromide
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Turky Alkathery, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Methscopolamine bromide is an anticholinergic that is FDA approved for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Common adverse reactions include anticholinergic adverse reaction and headache.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Indications

  • Methscopolamine bromide has not been shown to be effective in contributing to the healing of peptic ulcer, decreasing the rate of recurrence or preventing complications.

Dosage

  • The average dosage of Methscopolamine Bromide Tablets is 2.5 mg one-half hour before meals and 2.5 fo 5 mg at bedtime. A starling dose of 12.5 mg daily will be clinically effective in most patients without the production of appreciable side effects.
  • If the patient is experiencing symptoms such as severe abdominal pain or cramping which demand prompt relief, the drug may be started on a daily dosage of 20 mg, administered in doses of 5 mg one-half hour before meals and at bedtime. If very unpleasant side effects develop promptly, the daily dosage should be reduced. If neither symptomatic relief nor side effects appear, the daily dosage may be increased. Some patients have tolerated 30 mg daily with no unpleasant reactions.
  • Patients whose dosage has been reduced to eliminate or modify side effects often continue to show adequate response both subjectively in relief of symptoms and objectively as measured by antisecretory effects.
  • The ultimate aim of therapy is to arrive at a dosage which provides maximal clinical effectiveness with a minimum of unpleasant side effects. Many patients report no side effects on a dosage which gives complete relief of symptoms. On the other hand, some patients have reported severe side effects without appreciable symptomatic relief. Such patients must be considered unsuited for this therapy. Usually they have been or will prove to be similarly intolerant to other anticholinergic drugs. If methscopolamine bromide is to be used in a patient who gives a history of such intolerance, it should be started at a low dosage.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Methscopolamine bromide in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Methscopolamine bromide in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Safety and efficacy in children have not been established.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Methscopolamine bromide in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Methscopolamine bromide in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • Methscopolamine Bromide 2.5 mg Tablets/ Methscopolamine Bromide 5 mg Tablets are contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to methscopolamine bromide or related drugs.

Warnings

  • In the presence of high environmental temperature, heat prostration (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating) can occur with drug use.
  • Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.
  • Methscopolamine bromide may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be cautioned regarding activities requiring mental alertness such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.
  • With overdosage, a curare-like action may occur, i.e., neuromuscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis.

Precautions

General precautions

  • Use Methscopolamine Bromide 2.5 mg Tablets/Methscopolamine Bromide 5 mg Tablets with caution in the elderly and in all patients with: autonomic neuropathy; hepatic or renal disease; or ulcerative colitis-large doses may suppress intestinal motility to the point of producing a paralytic ileus and for this reason precipitate or aggravate "toxic megacolon," a serious complication of the disease.
  • Laboratory tests: Progress of the peptic ulcer under treatment should be followed by upper gastrointestinal contrast radiology or endoscopy to insure healing. Stool tests for occult blood and blood hemoglobin or hematocrit values should be followed to rule out bleeding from the ulcer.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • The following-adverse reactions have been observed, but there is not enough data to support an estimate of frequency.
  • Dermatologic: Decreased sweating, urticaria and other dermal manifestations.

Postmarketing Experience

  • There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience

Drug Interactions

  • Additive anticholinergic effects may result from concomitant use with antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and other drugs with anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration with antacids may interfere with the absorption of methscopolamine bromide.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): C Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with methscopolamine bromide. It also is not known whether methscopolamine bromide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Methscopolamine bromide should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Methscopolamine bromide in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Methscopolamine bromide during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when methscopolamine bromide is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy in children have not been established.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methscopolamine bromide in geriatric settings.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methscopolamine bromide with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methscopolamine bromide with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methscopolamine bromide in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methscopolamine bromide in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methscopolamine bromide in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Methscopolamine bromide in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral.

Monitoring

  • There is limited information regarding drug monitoring

IV Compatibility

  • There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility.

Overdosage

  • The symptoms of overdosage with Methscopolamine Bromide 2.5 mg Tablets/Methscopolamine Bromide 5 mg Tablets progress from intensification of the usual side effects to CNS disturbances (from restlessness and excitement to psychotic behavior), circulatory changes (flushing, fall in blood pressure, circulatory failure), respiratory failure, paralysis, and coma.
  • Measures to be taken are (1) induction of emesis and (2) injection of physostigmine 0.5 to 2 mg intravenously, and repeated as necessary up to a total of 5 mg. Fever may be treated symptomatically (alcohol sponging, ice packs). Excitement of a degree which demands attention may be managed with sodium thiopental 2% solution given slowly intravenously or chloral hydrate (100-200 ml of a 2% solution) by rectal infusion. In the event of progression of the curare-like effect to paralysis of the respiratory muscles, artificial respiration should be instituted and maintained until effective respiratory action returns.
  • The oral LD50 in rats is 1,352 to 2,617 mg/kg.
  • No data is available on the dialyzability of methscopolamine bromide.

Pharmacology

Methscopolamine.png
Methscopolamine bromide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(1R,2S,4R,5S,7R)-{[(2R)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}-9,9-dimethyl-3-oxa-9-azoniatricyclo[3.3.1.02,4]nonane
Identifiers
CAS number 155-41-9
ATC code A03BB03 S01FA03 (WHO)
PubChem 441342
DrugBank DB00462
Chemical data
Formula C18H24NO4 
Mol. mass 318.388 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism ?
Half life 3–4 hrs
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

?

Legal status
Routes ?

Mechanism of Action

  • There is limited information regarding Mechanism of action.

Structure

Methscopolamine Bromide 2.5 mg Tablets/Methscopolamine Bromide 5 mg Tablets contain methscopolamine bromide, an anticholinergic, which occurs as white crystals, or as a white odorless crystalline powder. Methscopolamine bromide melts at about 225°C with decomposition. The drug is freely soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in acetone and in chloroform.

The chemical name for methscopolamine bromide is 3-Oxa-9-azoniatricyclo [3.3.1.02,4] nonane, 7-(3-hydroxy-1 -oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-9, 9-dimethyl-, bromide, [7(S)-(1α, 2β, 4β, 5α, 7β]- and the molecular weight is 398.30.

The structural formula is represented below:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Pharmacodynamics

  • There is limited information regarding pharmacodynamics.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Methscopolamine bromide is a quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine. As a class, these agents are poorly and unreliably absorbed.1,2 Total absorption of quaternary ammonium derivatives of the alkaloids is 10-25%. Rate of absorption is not available. Quaternary ammonium salts have limited absorption from intact skin, and conjunctival penetration is poor.1 Little is known of the fate and excretion of most of these agents.1 Following oral administration, drug effects appear in about one hour and persist for 4 to 6 hours.2 Methscopolamine bromide has limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.34'5 The drug is excreted primarily in the urine and bile, or as unabsorbed drug in feces.2 There is no data on the presence of methscopolamine in breast milk; traces of atropine have been found after administration of atropine.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

  • No long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential.

Clinical Studies

  • There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies.

How Supplied

  • Methscopolamine Bromide 2.5 mg Tablets are available as white, round tablets, debossed with "A" on one side and "061" on the other side, in the following package size:
  • Bottles of 100 (NDC 18754-061-01)
  • Methscopolamine Bromide 5 mg Tablets are available as white, oval tablets, debossed with "A" on one side and "062" on the other side, in the following package size:
  • Dose Pack (5 blisters of 12 tablets)
  • Box of 60 (NDC 18754-062-06)

Storage

  • Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).
  • KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • There is limited information regarding Patient Counseling Information.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Methscopolamine bromide interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • METHSCOPOLAMINE BROMIDE ®[1]

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • There is limited information regarding Look-Alike Drug Names.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "methscopolamine bromide tablet".

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