Trismus

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2] Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.

Overview

Trismus (also known as lock jaw) is the inability to normally open the mouth due to one of many causes.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Ludwig angina, Stroke
Chemical/Poisoning Coral snake poisoning , Funnel web spider poisoning , Horseshoe crab poisoning
Dental Broken jaw, Coronoid hyperplasia, Damage to the trigeminal nerve, Dental caries , Dental tissue neoplasm , Drug associated dyskinesia, Fractured mandibular condyle , Idiopathic orofacial dystonia, Impacted wisdom tooth, Jaw ankylosis, Jaw pain, Odontogenic infection, Pericoronitis , Peritonsillar abscess, Post surgical edema, Prolonged dental treatment , Quinsy, Submasseteric abscess, Submucous fibrosis, Supraglottic laryngeal cancer , Temporomandibular joint disorder , Tm joint disorder, Tonsillitis, Trismus pseudocamptodactyly syndrome
Dermatologic Epidermolysis bullosa
Drug Side Effect Acetaminophen, Amphetamine, Drug associated dyskinesia, Local anesthesia, Mdma, Perphenazine, Strychnine 
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Oral submucous fibrosis
Genetic Crisponi syndrome, Gaucher disease , Iida-kannari syndrome , Trismus pseudocamptodactyly syndrome
Hematologic Hematoma of medial pterygoid, Hypocalcemia, Stroke
Iatrogenic Local anesthesia, Malignant hyperpyrexia, Post surgical edema, Prolonged dental treatment , Radiation fibrosis, Radiation therapy , Surgery
Infectious Disease Acute parotitis, Clostridium tetani, Infection, Ludwig angina, Mumps, Myositis, Odontogenic infection, Pericoronitis , Peritonsillar abscess, Quinsy, Rabies, Submasseteric abscess, Tetanus, Tonsillitis, Trichinella spiralis, Trichiniasis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Acute osteomyelitis, Ankylosis , Arthrogryposis , Fibrosis , Iida-kannari syndrome , Inflammation of the muscles of mastication, Mastication muscle inflammation, Medial pterygoid, Myofascial pain, Myositis, Osteoarthritis, Osteophyte formation, Tetanus, Tm joint disorder
Neurologic Acute osteomyelitis, Facial neuralgia, Facial pain, Facial trauma, Neuroleptics
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Coronoid hyperplasia, Dental tissue neoplasm , Local malignancy, Mucoepidermoid carcinoma , Supraglottic laryngeal cancer , Tumors
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric Hysteria, Malingering, Seizure disorder
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Arthritis, Fibrosis , Hypocalcemia, Jaw ankylosis, Osteoarthritis, Osteophyte formation, Psoriatic arthritis, Radiation fibrosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Scleroderma, Septic arthritis, Submucous fibrosis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Systemic sclerosis, Traumatic synovitis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Broken jaw, Burns, Condylar fracture , Damage to the trigeminal nerve, Dental caries , Facial trauma, Jaw pain, Needle prick, Trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Treatment

Treatment requires treating the underlying condition. Additionally, control of symptoms with pain medications (NSAIDs), muscle relaxants, and warm compresses may be used.


References

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