List of human blood components

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]



List of human blood components and their concentrations

Compound Comments In whole blood (g/cm³) In plasma or serum (g/cm³)
Water Solvent 0.81-0.86 0.93-0.95
Acetoacetate Produced in liver 8-40 ×10-7 4-43 ×10-7
Acetone product of bodyfat breakdown - 3-20 ×10-6
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter - 6.6-8.2 ×10-8
Adenosine triphosphate Energy storage - -
" total 3.1-5.7 ×10-4 -
" phosphorus 5-10 ×10-5 -
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone Stimulates the adrenal cortex - 2.5-12 ×10-11
" @ 6AM, mean - 5.5 ×10-11
" @ 6AM, maximum - 12 ×10-11
" @ 6PM, mean - 3.5 ×10-11
" @ 6PM, maximum - <7.5 ×10-11
Alanine Amino acid 2.7-5.5 ×10-5 2.4-7.6 ×10-5
Albumin Blood plasma protein - 3.5-5.2 ×10-2
Aluminum - 1-40 ×10-8 1-88 ×10-8
Aldosterone Regulates electrolyte balance - -
" supine - 3-10 ×10-11
" standing, male - 6-22 ×10-11
" standing, female - 5-30 ×10-11
Amino acids Protein building blocks - -
" total 3.8-5.3 ×10-4 -
" nitrogen 4.6-6.8 ×10-5 3.0-5.5 ×10-5
alpha-Aminobutyric acid - 1-2 ×10-6 1-2 ×10-6
d-Aminolevulinic acid - - 1.5-2.3 ×10-7
Ammonia nitrogen - 1-2 ×10-6 1.0-4.9 ×10-7
cAMP Intracellular signal transduction molecule - -
" male - 5.6-10.9 ×10-9
" female - 3.6-8.9 ×10-9
Androstenedione Steroid hormone -
" male >18 yrs - 2-30 ×10-10
" female >18 yrs - 8-30 ×10-10
Androsterone Steroid hormone - 1.5 ×10-7
Angiotensin I Angiotensin II precursor - 1.1-8.8 ×10-11
Angiotensin II Vasoconstrictor - 1.2-3.6 ×10-11
Alpha 1-antitrypsin Serine protease inhibitor - 7.8-20 ×10-4
Arginine Amino acid 6-17 ×10-6 1.3-3.6 ×10-5
Arsenic - - -
" normal range 2-62 ×10-9 -
" chronic poisoning 100-500 ×10-9 -
" acute poisoning 600-9300 ×10-9 -
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) Important vitamin 1-15 ×10-6 6-20 ×10-6
Aspartic acid Amino acid - 0-3 ×10-6
Aspartic acid (in WBCs) - 2.5-4.0 ×10-4 9-12 ×10-6
Bicarbonate Buffer in blood - 5-5.7 × 10-4
Bile acids Digestive function, bilirubin excretion 2-30 × 10-6 3-30 × 10-6
Bilirubin Hemoglobin metabolite 2-14 × 10-6 1-10 × 10-6
Biotin (Vitamin H) Gluconeogenesis,metabolize leucine,fatty acid synthesis 7-17 × 10-9 9-16 × 10-9
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) - - 8-23 × 10-5
Bradykinin - - 7 × 10-11
Bromide - - 7-10 × 10-9
Cadmium - - -
" normal 1-5 × 10-9 -
" toxic 0.1-3 × 10-6 -
Calciferol (Vitamin D2) Maintain calcium and phosphorus levels - 1.7-4.1 × 10-8
Calcitonin (CT) Hormone - <1.0 × 10-10
Calcium Bones, Ca2+ - -
" ionized 4.48-4.92 × 10-5 4.25-5.25 × 10-5
" total - 8.4-11.5 × 10-5
Carbon dioxide Respiratory gas - -
" arterial 8.8-10.8 × 10-4 3.0-7.9 × 10-5
" venous 9.8-11.8 × 10-4 3.3-8.3 × 10-5
Carboxyhemoglobin(as HbCO) - - -
" nonsmokers 0.5-1.5% total Hb -
" smokers, 1-2 packs/day 4-5% total Hb -
" smokers, 2 packs/day 8-9% total Hb -
" toxic >20% total Hb -
" lethal >50% total Hb -
Carcinoembryonic antigen - - <2.5 × 10-9
beta-Carotene Vitamin A dimer - 3-25 × 10-7
Carotenoids Antioxidant 2.4-23.1 × 10-7 -
Cephalin - 3-11.5 × 10-4 0-1 × 10-4
Ceruloplasmin - - 1.5-6 × 10-4
Chloride, as NaCl - 4.5-5 × 10-3 3.5-3.8 × 10-3
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) - - -
" 1, 25-dihydroxy - 2.5-4.5 × 10-11
" 24,25-dihydroxy - 1.5 × 10-9
" 25-hydroxy - 1.4-8 × 10-8
Cholecystokinin (pancreozymin) Stimulates fat and protein digestion - 6.04 × 10-11
Cholesterol Steroid lipid - -
" LDLC - 0.5-2.0 × 10-3
" HDLC - 2.9-9.0 × 10-4
" total 1.15-2.25 × 10-3 1.2-2 × 10-3
Choline, total - 1.1-3.1 × 10-4 3.6-3.5 × 10-4
Chorionic gonadotropin Progesterone secretion during pregnancy - -
" Menstrual - 0-3 × 10-11
" Pregnancy, 1st trimester - 5-3300 × 10-10
" Pregnancy, 2nd trimester - 20-1000 × 10-10
" Pregnancy, 3rd trimester - 20-50 × 10-10
" Menopausal - 3-30 × 10-11
Citric acid - 1.3-2.5 × 10-5 1.6-3.2 × 10-5
Citrulline - - 2-10 × 10-6
Coagulation Factors - - -
" Fibrinogen 1.2-1.6 × 10-3 2-4 × 10-3
" Prothrombin - 1 × 10-4
" Tissue thromboplastin - 1 × 10-6
" Proaccelerin - 5-12 × 10-6
" Proconvertin - 1 × 10-6
" Antihemophilic factor - 1 × 10-7
" Christmas factor - 4 × 10-6
" Stuart factor - 5 × 10-6
" Plasma thrmb. anteced. - 4 × 10-6
" Hageman factor - 2.9 × 10-5
" Fibrin stabilizing factor - 1 × 10-5
" Fibrin split products - <1 × 10-5
" Fletcher factor - 5 × 10-5
" Fitzgerald factor - 7 × 10-5
" von Willebrand factor - 7 × 10-6
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Needed for nerve cells, red blood cells, and to make DNA 6-14 × 10-10 1-10 × 10-10
Cocarboxylase - - 7-9 × 10-8
Complement system - - -
" C1q - 5.8-7.2 × 10-5
" C1r - 2.5-3.8 × 10-5
" C1s (C1 esterase) - 2.5-3.8 × 10-5
" C2 - 2.2-3.4 × 10-5
" C3( b1C-globulin) - 8-15.5 × 10-4
" Factor B (C3 proactivator) - 2-4.5 × 10-4
" C4 (b1E-globulin) - 1.3-3.7 × 10-4
" C4 binding protein - 1.8-3.2 × 10-4
" C5 (b1F-globulin) - 5.1-7.7 × 10-5
" C6 - 4.8-6.4 × 10-5
" C7 - 4.9-7 × 10-5
" C8 - 4.3-6.3 × 10-5
" C9 - 4.7-6.9 × 10-5
" Properdin - 2.4-3.2 × 10-5
Compound S - - 1-3 × 10-9
Copper - 9-15 × 10-7 -
" male - 7-14 × 10-7
" female - 8-15.5 × 10-7
Corticosteroids Steroid hormones - 1-4 × 10-6
Corticosterone - - 4-20 × 10-9
Cortisol Inhibits CRH secretion - 3-23 × 10-8
" 8 AM - 6-23 × 10-8
" 4 PM - 3-15 × 10-8
" 10 PM - ~50% of 8 AM value
C-peptide - - -
" fasting - 0.5-2.0 × 10-9
" maximum - 4 × 10-9
C-reactive protein Plasma protein - 6.8-820 × 10-8
Creatine Assists mucle cell energy supply - -
" male - 1.7-5.0 × 10-6
" female - 3.5-9.3 × 10-6
Creatinine - - -
" male - 0.8-1.5 × 10-5
" female - 0.7-1.2 × 10-5
Cyanide - - -
" nonsmokers - 4 × 10-9
" smokers - 6 × 10-9
" nitroprusside therapy - 10-60 × 10-9
" toxic - >100 × 10-9
" lethal - >1000 × 10-9
Cysteine Amino acid 6-12 × 10-6 1.8-5 × 10-5
Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA) Steroid hormone - -
" aged 1-4 yrs - 0.2-0.4 × 10-9
" aged 4-8 yrs - 0.1-1.9 × 10-9
" aged 8-10 yrs - 0.2-2.9 × 10-9
" aged 10-12 yrs - 0.5-9.2 × 10-9
" aged 12-14 yrs - 0.9-20 × 10-9
" aged 14-16 yrs - 2.5-20 × 10-9
" male - 0.8-10 × 10-9
" female, premenopausal - 2.0-15 × 10-9
DHEA sulfate male - 1.99-3.34 × 10-6
DHEA sulfate female - -
" newborn - 1.67-3.64 × 10-6
" pre-pubertal children - 1.0-6.0 × 10-7
" premenopausal - 8.2-33.8 × 10-7
" pregnancy - 2.3-11.7 × 10-7
" postmenopausal - 1.1-6.1 × 10-7
11-Deoxycortisol - - 1-7 × 10-8
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) - - -
" male - 3-8 × 10-9
" female - 1-10 × 10-10
Diphosphoglycerate (phosphate) - 8-16 × 10-5 -
DNA The molecule of heredity - 0-1.6 × 10-5
Dopamine Neurotransmitter - <1.36 × 10-10
Enzymes, total - - <6 × 10-5
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) - - <1 × 10-11
Epinephrine Neurotransmitter - -
" after 15 min rest - 3.1-9.5 × 10-11
" when emitted 3.8 × 10-9 2-2.5 × 10-9
Ergothioneine - 1-20 × 10-5 -
Erythrocytes (#/cm³) - - -
" adult male, avg. (range) 5.2 (4.6-6.2) × 109
" adult female, avg. (range) 4.6 (4.2-5.4) × 109
" children, varies with age 4.5-5.1 × 109
" reticulocytes 25-75 × 106
Erythropoietin - - -
" adult, normal - 0.5-2.5 × 10-10
" pregnant - 2.7-6.2 × 10-10
" hypoxia or anemia - 0.8-8.0 × 10-8
Estradiol (E2) - - -
" male - 8-36 × 10-12
" female, follicular(days 1-10) - 1-9 × 10-11
" female, mean - 5 × 10-11
" female, pre-fertile (days 10-12) - 10-15 × 10-11
" female, fertile (days 12-14) - 35-60 × 10-11
" female, luteal (days 15-28) - 20-40 × 10-11
" female, pregnancy - 3-70 × 10-7
" female, postmenopausal - 1-3 × 10-11
Estriol (E3) - - -
" nonpregnant - <2 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 22-30 - 3-5 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 32-37 - 6-11 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 38-41 - 25-170 × 10-9
Estrogen - - -
" male - 4-11.5 × 10-11
" female, prepubertal - <4 × 10-11
" female, 1-10 days - 6.1-39.4 × 10-11
" female, 11-20 days - 12.2-43.7 × 10-11
" female, 21-30 days - 15.6-35 × 10-11
" female, postmenopausal - <4 × 10-11
Estrone (E1) - - -
" male - 2.9-17 × 10-11
" female, follicular - 2-15 × 10-11
" female, 1-10 days of cycle - 4.3-18 × 10-11
" female, 11-20 days of cycle - 7.5-19.6 × 10-11
" female, 20-29 days of cycle - 13.1-20.1 × 10-11
" pregnancy, weeks 22-30 - 3-5 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 32-37 - 5-6 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 38-41 - 7-10 × 10-9
Ethanol - - -
" social high - 0.5 × 10-3
" reduced coordination - 0.8 × 10-3
" depression of CNS - >1 × 10-3
" confusion, falling down - 2.0 × 10-3
" loss of consciousness - 3.0 × 10-3
" coma, death - >4 × 10-3
Fat, neutral see Triglycerides - -
Fatty acids, nonesterified (free) - 8-25 × 10-5
Fatty acids, esterified - 2.5-3.9 × 10-3 7-20 × 10-5
Fatty acids, total - - 1.9-4.5 × 10-3
Ferritin -
" male - 1.5-30 × 10-8
" female - 0.9-18 × 10-8
alpha-1-Fetoprotein - - 0-2 × 10-8
Flavine adenine dinucleotide - - 8-12 × 10-8
Fluoride - 1-4.5 × 10-7 1-4.5 × 10-7
Folate - - 2.2-17.3 × 10-9
" in erythrocyte - 1.67-7.07 × 10-7
Folic acid 2.3-5.2 × 10-8 1.6-2 × 10-8
Fructose 0-5 × 10-5 7-8 × 10-5
Furosemide glucuronide - 1-400 × 10-6
Galactose (children) - <2 × 10-4
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) - <1.25-4.0 × 10-10
Gastrin -
" mean - 7 × 10-11
" maximum - <20 × 10-11
Globulin, - - total 2.2-4 × 10-2
alpha-1-Globulin - 1-4 × 10-3
alpha-2-Globulin - 4-10 × 10-3
beta-Globulin - 5-12 × 10-3
gamma-Globulin - 6-17 × 10-3
Glucagon -
" range - 5-15 × 10-11
" mean - 7.1-7.9 × 10-11
Glucosamine - - -
" fetus 4-6 × 10-4 4.2-5.5 × 10-4
" child 5-7 × 10-4 5.2-6.9 × 10-4
" adult 6-8 × 10-4 6.1-8.2 × 10-4
" aged 7-9 × 10-4 7.0-8.9 × 10-4
Glucose -
" newborn 2-3 × 10-4 -
" adult 6.5-9.5 × 10-4 7-10.5 × 10-4
" diabetic 14-120 × 10-4 -
Glucuronic acid 4.1-9.3 × 10-5 8-11 × 10-6
Glutamic acid - 2-28 × 10-6
Glutamine - 4.6-10.6 × 10-5
Glutathione, reduced 2.5-4.1 × 10-4 0
Glycerol, free - 2.9-17.2 × 10-6
Glycine 1.7-2.3 × 10-5 8-54 × 10-6
Glycogen 1.2-16.2 × 10-5 0
Glycoprotein, acid - 4-15 × 10-4
cGMP - 0.6-4.4 × 10-9
Gonadotropic releasing hormone - 1-80 × 10-12
Guanidine 1.8-2.3 × 10-6 -
Haptoglobin - 3-22 × 10-4
Hemoglobin 1.2-1.75 × 10-1 1-4 × 10-5
" newborn 1.65-1.95 × 10-1 -
" children, varies with age 1.12-1.65 × 10-1 -
" adult, male 1.4-1.8 × 10-1 -
" adult, female 1.2-1.6 × 10-1 -
" inside erythrocyte ~3.3 × 10-1 -
" per red blood cell 27-32 picograms -
Hexosephosphate P 1.4-5 × 10-5 0-2 × 10-6
Histamine 6.7-8.6 × 10-8 -
Histidine 9-17 × 10-6 1.1-3.8 × 10-5
Hydrogen ion(pH 7.4) 4 × 10-11 -
beta-Hydroxybutyric acid 1-6 × 10-6 1-9 × 10-6
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids 4-10 × 10-8 -
17-Hydroxyprogesterone - - -
" male - 20-250 × 10-11
" female, follicular - 20-80 × 10-11
" female, luteal - 80-300 × 10-11
" female, postmenopausal - 4-50 × 10-11
" female, child - 20-140 × 10-11
Antibodies - - -
" Immunoglobulin A (IgA) - 5-39 × 10-4
" Immunoglobulin D (IgD) - 0.5-8.0 × 10-5
" Immunoglobulin G (IgG) - 5.0-19 × 10-3
" Immunoglobulin M (IgM) - 3.0-30 × 10-4
" Immunoglobulin E (IgE) - <5 × 10-7
Indican - - 8-50 × 10-7
Inositol - - 3-7 × 10-6
Insulin - - 2.0-8.4 × 10-10
Insulin-like growth factor - - 9.9-50 × 10-8
Iodine, total - 2.4-3.2 × 10-8 4.5-14.5 × 10-8
Iron, adult - 4-6 × 10-4 6-18 × 10-7
Isoleucine - 9-15 × 10-6 1.2-4.2 × 10-5
Ketone bodies - 2.3-10 × 10-6 1.5-30 × 10-6
alpha-Ketonic acids, adult - 1-30 × 10-6 -
L-Lactate - - -
" arterial <11.3 × 10-5 4.5-14.4 × 10-5
" venous 8.1-15.3 × 10-5 4.5-19.8 × 10-5
Lead - - -
" normal 1-5 × 10-7 1-7.8 × 10-8
" toxic >6-10 × 10-7 -
Lecithin - 1.1-1.2 × 10-3 1-2.25 × 10-3
Leptin - 1.2 × 10-8 -
Leucine - 1.4-2 × 10-5 1.2-5.2 × 10-5
Leukocytes (#/cm³) Total: - - -
" total, birth 9.0-30.0 × 106 -
" total, pediatric 4.5-15.5 × 106 -
" total, adult, range 4.3-11.0 × 106 -
" total, adult, median 7.0 × 106 -
" Neutrophil granulocytes, birth 6.0-26.0 × 106 -
" Neutrophils, pediatric 1.5-8.5 × 106 -
" Neutrophils, adult, range 1.83-7.25 × 106 -
" Neutrophils, adult, median 3.65 × 106 -
" Eosinophil granulocytes birth 0.4 × 106 -
" Eosinophils, pediatric 0.2-0.3 × 106 -
" Eosinophils, adult, range 0.05-0.7 × 106 -
" Eosinophils, adult, median 0.15 × 106 -
" Basophil granulocytes, adult, range 0.015-0.15 × 106 -
" Basophils, adult, median 0.03 × 106 -
" Lymphocytes, birth 2-11 × 106 -
" Lymphocyte, pediatric 1.5-8.0 × 106 -
" Lymphocyte, adult, range 1.5-4.0 × 106 -
" Lymphocyte, adult, median 2.5 × 106 -
" Monocytes, birth, range 0.4-3.1 × 106 -
" Monocytes, birth, median 1.05 × 106 -
" Monocytes, pediatric 0.4 × 106 -
" Monocytes, adult, range 0.21-1.05 × 106 -
" Monocytes, adult, median 0.43 × 106 -
" Phagocytes, birth, range 6-26 × 106 -
" Phagocytes, birth, median 11 × 106 -
" Phagocytes, pediatric, range 1.5-8.5 × 106 -
" Phagocytes, pediatric, median 4.1 × 106 -
" Phagocytes, adult, range 3.5-9.2 × 106 -
" Phagocytes, CD4 cell count 0.5-1.5 × 106 -
Lipase P - 1.2-1.4 × 10-4 -
Lipids, total - 4.45-6.1 × 10-3 4-8.5 × 10-3
Lipoprotein (Sr 12-20) - - 1-10 × 10-4
Lithium - 1.5-2.5 × 10-8 -
Lysine - 1.3-3 × 10-5 2-5.8 × 10-5
Lysozyme (muramidase) - - 1-15 × 10-6
alpha 2-macroglobulin - - -
" pediatric - 2-7 × 10-3
" male, adult - 0.9-4.0 × 10-3
" female, adult - 1.2-5.4 × 10-3
Magnesium - 3.2-5.5 × 10-5 1.8-3.6 × 10-5
Malic acid - 4.6 × 10-6 1-9 × 10-6
Manganese - 0-2.5 × 10-7 0-1.9 × 10-7
Melatonin - - -
" Day - 1.35-1.45 × 10-11
" Night - 6.07-7.13 × 10-11
Mercury - - -
" normal <1 × 10-8 -
" chronic >20 × 10-8 -
Methemoglobin - 4-6 × 10-4 -
Methionine - 4-6 × 10-6 1-15 × 10-6
Methyl guanidine - 2-3 × 10-6 -
beta-2-microglobulin - - 8-24 × 10-7
MIP-1a - - 2.3 × 10-11
MIP-1b - - 9 × 10-11
Mucopolysaccharides - - 1.75-2.25 × 10-3
Mucoproteins - - 8.65-9.6 × 10-4
Nerve growth factor (NGF) - - 6-10 × 10-9
Niacin - 5-8 × 10-6 2-15 × 10-7
Nitrogen - - -
" respiratory gas 8.2 × 10-6 9.7 × 10-6
" total, nonrespiratory 3-3.7 × 10-2 -
Norepinephrine - - -
" after 15 min rest - 2.15-4.75 × 10-10
" when emitted 8.1 × 10-9 8.5 × 10-9
Nucleotide, total - 3.1-5.2 × 10-4 -
Ornithine - - 4-14 × 10-6
Oxalate - - 1-2.4 × 10-6
Oxygen (respiratory gas) - - -
" arterial 2.4-3.2 × 10-4 3.9 × 10-6
" venous 1.6-2.3 × 10-4 1.6 × 10-6
Oxytocin - - -
" male - 2 × 10-12
" female, nonlactating - 2 × 10-12
" female, pregnant 33-40 wks - 32-48 × 10-12
Pancreatic polypeptide - - 5-20 × 10-11
Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) - 1.5-4.5 × 10-7 6-35 × 10-8
Para-aminobenzoic acid - 3-4 × 10-8 -
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - - 2-4 × 10-10
Pentose, phosphorated - - 2-2.3 × 10-5
Phenol, free - 7-10 × 10-7 -
Phenylalanine - 8-12 × 10-6 1.1-4 × 10-5
Phospholipid - 2.25-2.85 × 10-3 5-12 × 10-5
Phosphatase, acid, prostatic - - <3 × 10-9
Phosphorus - - -
" inorganic, adult 2-3.9 × 10-5 2.3-4.5 × 10-5
" inorganic, children - 4.0-7.0 × 10-5
" total 3.5-4.3 × 10-4 1-1.5 × 10-4
Phytanic acid - - <3 × 10-6
Platelets (#/cm³): - - -
" range 1.4-4.4 × 108 -
" median 2.5 × 108 -
Platelet Derived Growth Factor - - 5.0 × 10-8
Polysaccharides, total - - 7.3-13.1 × 10-4
Potassium - 1.6-2.4 × 10-3 1.4-2.2 × 10-4
Pregnenolone - - 3-20 × 10-10
Progesterone (male) - - 12-20 × 10-11
Progesterone (female) - - -
" follicular - 0.4-0.9 × 10-9
" midluteal - 7.7-12.1 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 16-18 - 30-66 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 28-30 - 70-126 × 10-9
" pregnancy, weeks 38-40 - 131-227 × 10-9
Proinsulin - - -
" fasting - 0.5-5 × 10-10
" mean - 1.42-1.70 × 10-10
Prolactin (male) <20 × 10-9 - - -
" while awake - 1-7 × 10-9
" during sleep - 9-20 × 10-9
Prolactin (female) - - -
" follicular - <23 × 10-9
" luteal - 5-40 × 10-9
Proline - - 1.2-5.7 × 10-5
Prostaglandins - - -
" PGE - 3.55-4.15 × 10-10
" PGF - 1.26-1.56 × 10-10
" 15-keto-PGF2a - 5 × 10-10
" 15-keto-PGE2 - <5 × 10-11
Protein, total - 1.9-2.1 × 10-1 6.0-8.3 × 10-2
Protoporphyrin - 2.7-6.1 × 10-7 -
Prostate specific antigen - 0-5 × 10-9 -
Pseudoglobulin I - - 8-19 × 10-3
Pseudoglobulin II - - 2-8 × 10-3
Purine, total - 9.5-11.5 × 10-5 -
Pyrimidine nucleotide - 2.6-4.6 × 10-5 2-12 × 10-7
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) - - 3.6-90 × 10-9
Pyruvic acid - 3-10 × 10-6 3-12 × 10-6
RANTES - - 7 × 10-11
Relaxin - - -
" day <100 preparturition - <2 × 10-9
" day 100 to 2 days preceding - 5-40 × 10-9
" day preceding parturition - 100-200 × 10-9
" day following parturition - <2 × 10-9
Retinol (Vitamin A) - - 1-8 × 10-7
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) - 1.5-6 × 10-7 2.6-3.7 × 10-8
RNA - 5-8 × 10-4 4-6 × 10-5
Secretin - - 2.9-4.5 × 10-11
Serine - - 3-20 × 10-6
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) - 1.55-1.81 × 10-77 0.8-2.1 × 10-7
Silicon - 1.4-2.95 × 10-6 2.2-5.7 × 10-6
Sodium - - 3.1-3.4 × 10-3
Solids, total - 2-2.5 × 10-1 8-9 × 10-2
Somatotropin (growth hormone) - - 4-140 × 10-10
Sphingomyelin - 1.5-1.85 × 10-3 1-4 × 10-4
Succinic acid - - 5 × 10-6
Sugar, total - 7-11 × 10-4 -
Sulfates, inorganic - - 8-12 × 10-6
Sulfur, total - 3.8-5 × 10-2 3.1-3.8 × 10-2
Taurine - - 3-21 × 10-6
Testosterone (male) - - -
" free - 5.6-10.2 × 10-11
" total - 275-875 × 10-11
Testosterone (female) - - -
" free - 0.24-0.38 × 10-11
" total - 23-75 × 10-11
" pregnant - 38-190 × 10-11
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - 3-10 × 10-8 1-9 × 10-8
Thiocyanate - 5-14 × 10-6 -
" nonsmoker - 1-4 × 10-6
" smoker - 3-12 × 10-6
Threonine - 1.3-2 × 10-5 0.9-3.2 × 10-5
Thyroglobulin (Tg) - - <5 × 10-8
Thyroid hormones - - 4-8 × 10-8
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone - - 5-60 × 10-12
Thyroxine (FT4) - - -
" free - 8-24 × 10-12
" total - 4-12 × 10-8
Thyroxine-binding prealbumin - - 2.8-3.5 × 10-4
Thyroxine-binding globulin - - 1.0-3.4 × 10-7
Tin - 0-4 × 10-7 0-1 × 10-7
alpha-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) - - 5-20 × 10-6
Transcortin - - -
" male - 1.5-2 × 10-5
" female - 1.6-2.5 × 10-5
Transferrin - - -
" newborn - 1.3-2.75 × 10-3
" adult - 2.2-4 × 10-3
" age >60 yrs - 1.8-3.8 × 10-3
Triglycerides - 8.5-23.5 × 10-4 2.5-30 × 10-4
Triiodothyronine - - -
" free - 2.3-6.6 × 10-12
" total (T3) - 0.75-2.50 × 10-9
Tryptophan - 5-10 × 10-6 9-30 × 10-6
Tyrosine - 8-14 × 10-6 4-25 × 10-6
Urea - 2-4 × 10-4 2.8-4 × 10-4
Uric acid - 6-49 × 10-6 2-7 × 10-5
" child - 3.5-7.2 × 10-5
" adult, male - 2.6-6.0 × 10-5
" adult, female 2.0-5.5 × 10-5
Valine - 2-2.9 × 10-5 1.7-4.2 × 10-5
Vasointestinal peptide (VIP) - - 6-16 × 10-12
Vasopressin - - -
" hydrated - 4.5 × 10-13
" dehydrated - 3.7 × 10-12
Zinc - 5-13 × 10-6 7-15 × 10-7



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