Limiting reagent

Jump to: navigation, search

In chemistry, the limiting reagent, or also called the "limiting reactant", is the chemical that determines how far the reaction will go before the chemical in question gets used up, causing the reaction to stop. The chemical of which there are fewer moles than the proportion requires is the limiting reagent.

Example

Consider the combustion of benzene:

1.5 mol Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): C_6H_6 × Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \frac{15 mol O_2}{2 mol C_6H_6}=11.25 mol O_2

This means that 11.25 mol Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): O_2 is required to react with 1.5 mol Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): C_6H_6 . Since only 7 mol Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): O_2 is present, the oxygen will be consumed before benzene. Therefore, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): O_2 must be the limiting reagent.

This conclusion can be verified by comparing the mole ratio of Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): O_2 and Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): C_6H_6 required by the balanced equation with the mole ratio actually present:

required: Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \frac{mol O_2}{mol C_6H_6} = Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \frac{15 mol O_2}{2 mol C_6H_6}=7.5 mol O_2

actual: Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \frac{mol O_2}{mol C_6H_6} = Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \frac{7 mol O_2}{1.5 mol C_6H_6}=4.7 mol O_2

Since the actual ratio is too small, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): O_2 is the limiting reagent.

Consider a typical thermite reaction:

If 20.0 g of Fe2O3 are reacted with 8.00 g Al(s) in the thermite reaction, Which reactant is limiting?.

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe_2O_3(s) + 2 Al(s) \rightarrow 2 Fe(l) + Al_2O_3(s)\,

First, determine how many moles of Fe(l) can be produced from either reactant.

Moles produced of Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe from reactant Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe_2O_3

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): mol Fe_2O_3 = \frac{grams Fe_2O_3}{g/mol Fe_2O_3}\,

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): mol Fe_2O_3 = \frac{20.0 g}{159.7 g/mol} = 0.127 mol\,

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): mol Fe = (2)(0.127) = 0.254 mol Fe\,

Moles produced of Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe from reactant Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Al

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): mol Al = \frac{grams Al}{g/mol Al}\,

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): mol Al = \frac{8.00 g}{26.98 g/mol} = 0.297 mol\,

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): mol Fe = \frac{(2)(0.297)}{2} = 0.297 mol Fe\,

Because the moles Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe produced from Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe_2O_3 (Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): 0.254 mol ) is less than the moles Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe produced from Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Al (Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): 0.297 mol ), Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): Fe_2O_3 is the limiting reagent.

By looking at chemical equation for the thermite reaction, the limiting reagent can be found based on the ratio of moles of one reactant to another and the total atomic mass of the reactant compounds.

Limiting reagent formula

There is a much simpler formula which can be used. However, you must first calculate the moles of both of the reagents in the reaction. Once the number of moles have been figured out, just simply fill in this equation (reagent 1 being the first reactant and 2 being the second):

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \mbox{Moles of Reagent 2} \times \frac{\mbox{Coefficient of Reagent 1}}{\mbox{Coefficient of Reagent 2}} - \mbox{Moles of Reagent 1}

When the answer to the formula is less than zero, reagent 1 is the excess reagent. When the answer is larger than zero, reagent 1 is the limiting reagent. The number shows how much in excess one reagent is from another. If the answer for the formula is zero, both reagents are perfectly balanced. The unit of an answer is in moles.

References

  • Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemical Principals. 4th ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. ISBN 0618372067.

See also

it:Reagente limitante


Linked-in.jpg