Intracranial hemorrhage causes

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Intracranial hemorrhage Microchapters




Intra-Axial Hemorrhage
Extra-Axial Hemorrhage



Differentiating Intracranial Hemorrhage from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings





Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.


Common causes of intracranial hemorrhage are primarily neurological traumas, as well as cardiovascular conditions and as a side effect from anticoagulant therapy.


Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Amyloid angiopathy, Angioma, Arachnoid villi, Arteriovenous malformation, Cavernous haemangioma, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Cerebral haemorrhage, Cerebral infarction, Cerebral venous thrombosis, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Fibromuscular dysplasia , Hypertension, Injured venous sinus, Intracranial arteriovenous malformation, Intraventricular haemorrhage, Postpartum vasculopathy, Ruptured intracerebral aneurysm, Thrombolysis
Chemical/Poisoning Hemotoxins, Hydroxyethyl starch, Mechlorethamine -- teratogenic agent, Molybdenum, cofactor deficiency, inherited
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Activase, Almotriptan, Alteplase, Beractant, Caspofungin acetate, Clopidogrel, Cobimetinib, Desogestrel , Ethinyl estradiol, Iodixanol, Ixabepilone, Lysatec-rt-pa, Naratriptan, Omacetaxine, Pegaspargase, Pergolide, Sumatriptan, Tipranavir, Warfarin
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Liver failure
Genetic Connective tissue disease, Menkes disease, Molybdenum, cofactor deficiency, inherited
Hematologic Anticoagulants, Clopidogrel, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Epidural haemorrhage, Hemorrhagic diathesis, Hemorrhagic stroke, Hemotoxins, Hypernatraemia, Hypertension, Intraventricular haemorrhage, Leukemia, Leukostasis, Moyamoya syndrome, Mycotic aneurysm, Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, Perinatal hemorrhage, Subarachnoid haemorrhage, Subdural haemorrhage, Thrombolysis, Warfarin
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Mycotic aneurysm
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Connective tissue disease
Neurologic Amyloid angiopathy, Arachnoid villi, Arteriovenous malformation, Brain tumor, Cavernous haemangioma, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Cerebral haemorrhage, Cerebral infarction, Cerebral venous thrombosis, Moyamoya syndrome, Ruptured intracerebral aneurysm, Skull fracture, Subarachnoid haemorrhage, Subdural haemorrhage
Nutritional/Metabolic Vitamin k deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic Eclampsia, Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, Perinatal hemorrhage, Postpartum vasculopathy
Oncologic Angioma, Brain tumor, Leukemia
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte Fibromuscular dysplasia , Hypernatraemia, Polycystic kidney disease
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Fracture gap, Head injury, Skull fracture
Urologic Polycystic kidney disease
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order