Hyperpituitarism (patient information)

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Hyperpituitarism (patient information)
ICD-10 E22
ICD-9 253.1
MeSH D006964

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Jinhui Wu, M.D.

Overview

Hyperpituitarism is the disorder of excess secretion of adenohypophyseal trophic hormones, which is commonly caused by a functional pituitary adenoma. Usual symptoms depend on the cell types affected. Common clinical manifestations of hormone excess may include hyperprolactinaemia, Cushing's disease, precocious puberty, gigantism or acromegaly. Usual signs and symptoms include headache, excessive sweating, hoarseness, galactorrhea, sleep apnea, osteoporosis and hypertension. Hormone tests and cranial MRI may help disgnosis. Treatments of hyperpituitarism focus on surgery to remove the tumor and inhibition of synthesis or secretion of such abnormal hormones.

What are the symptoms of hyperpituitarism?

Signs and symptoms of hyperpituitarism are the excessive production of growth hormone and abnormal hormone excretion controlled by the pituitary, such as prolactin and thyroid hormones.

Who is at highest risk?

Diagnosis

When to seek urgent medical care?

If you develop signs and symptoms associated with hyperpituitarism, see your doctor to determine the cause. If you experience either of the following symptoms, seeking urgent medical care as soon as possible:

Treatment options

Treatment opinion depends on the cause and the cell types affected.

Diseases with similar symptoms

Where to find medical care for hyperpituitarism?

Directions to Hospitals Treating hyperpituitarism

Prevention of hyperpituitarism

The prevention of hyperpituitarism is unknown.

What to expect (Outook/Prognosis)?

Prognosis of hyperpituitariam depends on the hormone level affected.

  • Whether the patient has been treated with surgery to remove the tumor.
  • For hyperprolactinemia: The undetectable level (<2 µg/L) of prolactin predicts cure with more than 90% probability. On the contrary, higher values within the reference range indicate incomplete removal of the adenoma.
  • Postoperative serum GH levels: Basal serum GH levels obtained immediately after surgery suggest the outcome of tumor recurrence in children with GH-releasing adenomas. The higher the GH levels are, the worse of the prognosis will be.
  • For hyperpituitariam resulting from corticotropinoma: The concentration of plasma cortisol concentration in the morning and corticotropin concentration over 24 consecutive hours measured 4-7 days after surgery may demonstrate the prognosis. The lower the concentrations are, the better outcomes will be.

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