Hypercholesterolemia (patient information)

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Hypercholesterolemia
Cholesterol
ICD-10 E78.0
ICD-9 272.0
DiseasesDB 6226
MeSH D006937

Hypercholesterolemia Microchapters

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ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce ASCV Risk in Adults

Statin Treatment
Intensity of Statin Therapy
LDL and Non-HDL Treatment Goals
Primary Prevention
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Heart Failure and Hemodialysis
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Managing Statin Therapy
Monitoring Statin Therapy
Optimizing statin therapy
Insufficient Response

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Editor-in-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S.,M.D. [1] Phone:617-632-7753; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

The medical term for high blood cholesterol and triglycerides is lipid disorder. Such a disorder occurs when you have too many fatty substances in your blood. These substances include cholesterol and triglycerides.

What causes Hypercholesterolemia?

  • There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are:
  • Total cholesterol: all the cholesterols combined
  • High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: often called good cholesterol
  • Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: often called bad cholesterol
  • There are several genetic disorders (passed down through families) that lead to abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. They include:
  • Familial combined hyperlipidemia
  • Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia
  • Familial hypertriglyceridemia
  • Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels may also be caused by:

How to know you have a Hypercholesterolemia?

  • Tests to diagnose a lipid disorder may include:
  • HDL test
  • LDL test
  • Lipoprotein-a analysis
  • Total cholesterol test
  • Triglyceride test

When to seek urgent medical care

If you have high cholesterol or other risk factors for coronary heart disease, make appointments as recommended by your doctor.

Treatment options

  • The recommended values for adults are different depending on the above risk factors, but in general:
  • LDL: 70-130 mg/dL (lower numbers are better)
  • HDL: more than 40-60 mg/dL (high numbers are better)
  • Total cholesterol: less than 200 mg/dL (lower numbers are better)
  • Triglycerides: 10-150 mg/dL (lower numbers are better)
  • There are steps that everyone can take to improve their cholesterol levels, and help prevent heart disease and heart attack. Here are the most important ones:
  • Eat a heart-healthy diet with plenty of fiber-rich fruits and vegetables.
  • Avoid saturated fats (found mostly in animal products) and trans-fatty acids (found in fast foods and commercially baked products). Instead, choose unsaturated fats.
  • Exercise regularly to help raise your HDL ("good" cholesterol)
  • Get periodic health checkups and cholesterol screenings
  • Lose weight if you are overweight
  • Quit smoking
  • If lifestyle changes do not change your cholesterol levels enough, your doctor may recommend medication. There are several types of drugs available to help lower blood cholesterol levels, and they work in different ways. Some are better at lowering LDL cholesterol, some are good at lowering triglycerides, while others help raise HDL cholesterol.
  • The most commonly used and most effective drugs for treating high LDL cholesterol are called statins. You doctor will choose one of these:
  • Other drugs that may be used include bile acid sequestering resins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, fibrates, and nicotinic acid (niacin).

Where to find medical care for Hypercholesterolemia

Directions to Hospitals Treating Hypercholesterolemia

Prevention

  • The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force recommends that men age 35 or older and women age 45 or older should have their cholesterol levels checked.
  • To help prevent high cholesterol:
  • Eat a well-balanced, low-fat diet
  • Keep a healthy body weight
  • Get regular exercise

What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)

If you are diagnosed with high cholesterol, you will probably need to continue lifestyle changes and drug treatment throughout your life. Periodic monitoring of your cholesterol blood levels may be necessary. Reducing high cholesterol levels will slow the progression of atherosclerosis.

Possible complications

  • Possible complications of high cholesterol include:
  • Possible complications of high triglycerides include:

Sources

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000403.htm


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