Hemoptysis pathophysiology On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hemoptysis pathophysiology
Lung has two main vascular systems that include pulmonary circulation and bronchial circulation. There are multiple anastomoses between pulmonary and bronchial arteries which create physiologic right to left shunts. Blood in the hemoptysis is mostly originated from the Lung. However, it could be from the gastrointestinal system as well. Primary origin of the blood comes from bronchial arteries. However, other sources of bleeding might be pulmonary vessels, aorta, intercostal, coronary, thoracic, and phrenic arteries. Hemoptysis is an important symptom that has different etiologies and pathogenesis mechanisms. Hemoptysis may happen following infarction and ischemia of pulmonary parenchyma as seen in pulmonary embolism, vasculitis, and infections. Another mechanism of hemoptysis is vascular engorgement with erosion as seen in bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and toxic exposure to cigarette and other irritants. In some cases underlying cause can not be identified and they are considered as idiopathic. However, they might present with massive hemoptysis. There are multiple conditions that are associated with hemoptysis which include granulomatosis with polyangiitis, sarcoidosis, immunodeficiency, and indoor ice hockey play.
- Lung has two main vascular systems that include pulmonary circulation and bronchial circulation.
- There are multiple anastomoses between pulmonary and bronchial arteries which create physiologic right to left shunts.
- Bronchial vessels provide blood and nutrients to the bronchi and connective tissue of the lungs. They supply blood to the respiratory bronchioles and the visceral pleura of the lung.
- Bronchial arteries carry oxygenated blood to the lung tissues. They are arised from the thoracic aorta. There are usually two branches to the left lung and one to the right lung.
- Bronchial veins return the deoxygenated blood from the lung tissues to the systemic circulation. The right side drains into the azygos vein and the left side drains into the left superior intercostal vein or the accessory hemiazygos vein.
- Hemoptysis is an important symptom that has different etiologies and pathogenesis mechanisms.
- Blood in the hemoptysis is mostly originated from the Lung. However, it could be from the gastrointestinal system as well.
- Primary origin of the blood comes from bronchial arteries.
- Other sources of bleeding might be:
- Hemoptysis may happen following infarction and ischemia of pulmonary parenchyma. It is seen in following conditions:
- Another mechanism of hemoptysis is vascular engorgement with erosion. It is seen in following conditions:
- In some cases underlying cause can not be identified and they are considered as idiopathic. However, they might present with massive hemoptysis.
- There are multiple conditions that are associated with hemoptysis which include:
- "File:2119 Pulmonary Circuit.jpg - Wikimedia Commons".
- "File:Pulmonary Blood Circulation.png - Wikimedia Commons".
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