Hemoptysis classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sadaf Sharfaei M.D.[2]

Overview

Hemoptysis may be classified into several subtypes based on duration of symptoms, severity and origin of the bleeding. Based on the duration of symptoms, hemoptysis may be classified as either acute or chronic. Hemoptysis may be classified according to severity into 3 groups of mild, moderate, and massive bleeding. Based on the origin of bleeding, hemoptysis may be classified into two groups of pulmonary versus extrapulmonary bleeding.

Classification

  • Hemoptysis may be classified into several subtypes based on:[1][2][3]
  • Based on the severity of bleeding, hemoptysis may be classified as mild, moderate, and massive:[4][5][6][7]
Category Amount
Mild bleeding <30 ml blood in 24 hours
Moderate bleeding 30-200 ml blood in 24 hours
Massive bleeding 200-600 ml blood in 24 hours

References

  1. Fidan A, Ozdoğan S, Oruç O, Salepçi B, Ocal Z, Cağlayan B (2002). "Hemoptysis: a retrospective analysis of 108 cases". Respir Med. 96 (9): 677–80. PMID 12243312.
  2. Noë, G.D.; Jaffé, S.M.; Molan, M.P. (2011). "CT and CT angiography in massive haemoptysis with emphasis on pre-embolization assessment". Clinical Radiology. 66 (9): 869–875. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2011.03.001. ISSN 0009-9260.
  3. Lee MK, Kim SH, Yong SJ, Shin KC, Kim HS, Yu TS, Choi EH, Lee WY (2015). "Moderate hemoptysis: recurrent hemoptysis and mortality according to bronchial artery embolization". Clin Respir J. 9 (1): 53–64. doi:10.1111/crj.12104. PMID 24406077.
  4. Johnson JL (2002). "Manifestations of hemoptysis. How to manage minor, moderate, and massive bleeding". Postgrad Med. 112 (4): 101–6, 108–9, 113. PMID 12400152.
  5. Mal H, Thabut G, Plantier L (2003). "[Hemoptysis]". Rev Prat (in French). 53 (9): 975–9. PMID 12816036.
  6. Andersen PE (2006). "Imaging and interventional radiological treatment of hemoptysis". Acta Radiol. 47 (8): 780–92. doi:10.1080/02841850600827577. PMID 17018424.
  7. Sakr L, Dutau H (2010). "Massive hemoptysis: an update on the role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis and management". Respiration. 80 (1): 38–58. doi:10.1159/000274492. PMID 20090288.
  8. Yoon W, Kim JK, Kim YH, Chung TW, Kang HK (2002). "Bronchial and nonbronchial systemic artery embolization for life-threatening hemoptysis: a comprehensive review". Radiographics. 22 (6): 1395–409. doi:10.1148/rg.226015180. PMID 12432111.

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