Growth differentiation factor

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Growth differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subfamily of proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions predominantly in development.[1]

Types

Several members of this subfamily have been described, and named GDF1 through GDF15.

References

  1. Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (2004). "Transforming growth factor-beta-related proteins: an ancestral and widespread superfamily of cytokines in metazoans". Dev Comp Immunol. 28 (5): 461–85. PMID 15062644.
  2. Rankin C, Bunton T, Lawler A, Lee S (2000). "Regulation of left-right patterning in mice by growth/differentiation factor-1". Nat Genet. 24 (3): 262–5. PMID 10700179.
  3. Lopez-Coviella I, Follettie M, Mellott T, Kovacheva V, Slack B, Diesl V, Berse B, Thies R, Blusztajn J (2005). "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102 (19): 6984–9. PMID 15870197.
  4. Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression independently of Hfe, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), and IL-6". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103 (27): 10289–93. PMID 16801541.
  5. Levine A, Brivanlou A (2006). "GDF3 at the crossroads of TGF-beta signaling". Cell Cycle. 5 (10): 1069–73. PMID 16721050.
  6. Levine A, Brivanlou A (2006). "GDF3, a BMP inhibitor, regulates cell fate in stem cells and early embryos". Development. 133 (2): 209–16. PMID 16339188.
  7. Chen C, Ware S, Sato A, Houston-Hawkins D, Habas R, Matzuk M, Shen M, Brown C (2006). "The Vg1-related protein Gdf3 acts in a Nodal signaling pathway in the pre-gastrulation mouse embryo". Development. 133 (2): 319–29. PMID 16368929.
  8. O'Keeffe G, Dockery P, Sullivan A (2004). "Effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 on the survival and morphology of embryonic rat midbrain dopaminergic neurones in vitro". J Neurocytol. 33 (5): 479–88. PMID 15906156.
  9. Buxton P, Edwards C, Archer C, Francis-West P (2001). "Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and skeletal development". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A Suppl 1 (Pt 1): S23–30. PMID 11263662.
  10. Francis-West P, Parish J, Lee K, Archer C (1999). "BMP/GDF-signalling interactions during synovial joint development". Cell Tissue Res. 296 (1): 111–9. PMID 10199971.
  11. Chang C, Hemmati-Brivanlou A (1999). "Xenopus GDF6, a new antagonist of noggin and a partner of BMPs". Development. 126 (15): 3347–57. PMID 10393114.
  12. Asai-Coakwell M, French C, Berry K, Ye M, Koss R, Somerville M, Mueller R, van Heyningen V, Waskiewicz A, Lehmann O (2007). "GDF6, a novel locus for a spectrum of ocular developmental anomalies". Am J Hum Genet. 80 (2): 306–15. PMID 17236135.
  13. Hanel M, Hensey C. "Eye and neural defects associated with loss of GDF6". BMC Dev Biol. 6: 43. PMID 17010201.
  14. McPherron AC, Lawler AM, Lee SJ. Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. Nature 1997;387:83-90. PMID 9139826.
  15. Juengel J, Bodensteiner K, Heath D, Hudson N, Moeller C, Smith P, Galloway S, Davis G, Sawyer H, McNatty K. "Physiology of GDF9 and BMP15 signalling molecules". Anim Reprod Sci. 82-83: 447–60. PMID 15271472.
  16. Hreinsson J, Scott J, Rasmussen C, Swahn M, Hsueh A, Hovatta O (2002). "Growth differentiation factor-9 promotes the growth, development, and survival of human ovarian follicles in organ culture". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87 (1): 316–21. PMID 11788667.
  17. Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S. "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological functions". Front Biosci. 9: 1520–9. PMID 14977563.
  18. Cunningham N, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Reddi A, Lee S (1995). "Growth/differentiation factor-10: a new member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily related to bone morphogenetic protein-3". Growth Factors. 12 (2): 99–109. PMID 8679252.
  19. Andersson O, Reissmann E, Ibáñez C (2006). "Growth differentiation factor 11 signals through the transforming growth factor-beta receptor ALK5 to regionalize the anterior-posterior axis". EMBO Rep. 7 (8): 831–7. PMID 16845371.
  20. Wu H, Ivkovic S, Murray R, Jaramillo S, Lyons K, Johnson J, Calof A (2003). "Autoregulation of neurogenesis by GDF11". Neuron. 37 (2): 197–207. PMID 12546816.
  21. Kim J, Wu H, Lander A, Lyons K, Matzuk M, Calof A (2005). "GDF11 controls the timing of progenitor cell competence in developing retina". Science. 308 (5730): 1927–30. PMID 15976303.
  22. Zimmers T, Jin X, Hsiao E, McGrath S, Esquela A, Koniaris L (2005). "Growth differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induction after kidney and lung injury". Shock. 23 (6): 543–8. PMID 15897808.
  23. Hsiao E, Koniaris L, Zimmers-Koniaris T, Sebald S, Huynh T, Lee S (2000). "Characterization of growth-differentiation factor 15, a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member induced following liver injury". Mol Cell Biol. 20 (10): 3742–51. PMID 10779363.
  24. Ago T, Sadoshima J (2006). "GDF15, a cardioprotective TGF-beta superfamily protein". Circ Res. 98 (3): 294–7. PMID 16484622.

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