Goiter historical perspective
Goiter historical perspective On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Goiter historical perspective
Ancient texts with reference to goiter date back to 2700 BC. In the 7th century, steatomatous goiter and hyperplastic or hyperemic goiter were described by Paulus Aegineta. In 1917, Marine introduced prevention of goiter with iodine by suggesting a low dose of 1:100000 parts of iodine. In 1949, commercial synthesis of levothyroxine was done successfully.
- Ancient texts with reference to goiter have been seen dating back to 2700 BC.
- In 1400 BC, goiter was described as ‘galaganda’ and details regarding this disease were explained in Indian ayurvedic medicine.
- In the 7th century, steatomatous goiter and hyperplastic or hyperemic goiter were described by Paulus Aegineta.
- In 1656, Thomas Wharton, a famous anatomist, discovered the exact anatomical structure of the thyroid gland.
- In 1836, Thomas Wilkinson King, also known as father of endocrinology, described thyroid colloid in his article on ‘Observations on the Thyroid Gland’.
- Between 1884 and 1886, Sir Horsley discovered the association of thyroidectomy with myxedema and cretinism, during his experiments on monkeys.
- In the 19th century iodine was discovered by the Parisians Courtois.
- In 1974, an international committee of thyroid pathologists published the first WHO classification of tumors of the thyroid gland based on histology, which served as a basis for various clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies.
Landmark Events in the Development of Treatment Strategies
- In the 6th century, the surgical treatment of goiter was mentioned by Aetius. Aetius also made references to ‘atheromatous’ goiters. 
- In the 7th century, thyroid surgery on struma was performed by Paulus Aegineta. 
- In the 10th century, Albucasis removed a large goiter of a man under opium sedation which is supposedly the first reliable account of a thyroid surgery. 
- In the 14th century, Guy de Chaliac, a French surgeon reported goiter as a hereditary disease and recommended surgical treatment for it.
- Coindet of Geneva was the first person to use iodine as a remedy for goiter and prescribed hydriodate of potash or ‘tincture of iodine’. 
- In 1833, salt iodization was suggested by Boussingault in order to prevent goiter. In 1835, he also demonstrated that the incidence of goiter was reduced when salt from goiter-free regions was used in regions with endemic goiter.
- In 1907, David Marine proved that iodine is necessary for thyroid function.
- In 1909, the nobel prize was awarded to Emil Theodor Kocher, for his work on thyroid gland.
- In 1917, Marine introduced prevention of goiter with iodine by suggesting a low dose of 1:100000 parts of iodine.
- In 1943, Hertz, Roberts and Leblond used radioactive iodine was used in the treatment of Grave's disease.
- In 1949, commercial synthesis of levothyroxine was done successfully.
- Niazi AK, Kalra S, Irfan A, Islam A (2011). "Thyroidology over the ages". Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 15 (Suppl 2): S121–6. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.83347. PMC 3169859. PMID 21966648.
- Leoutsakos V (2004). "A short history of the thyroid gland". Hormones (Athens). 3 (4): 268–71. PMID 16982603.
- Hedinger C, Williams ED, Sobin LH (1989). "The WHO histological classification of thyroid tumors: a commentary on the second edition". Cancer. 63 (5): 908–11. PMID 2914297.
- name="pmid21966648">Niazi AK, Kalra S, Irfan A, Islam A (2011). "Thyroidology over the ages". Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 15 (Suppl 2): S121–6. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.83347. PMC 3169859. PMID 21966648.