Formate dehydrogenase

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Overview

Formate dehydrogenases are a set of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of formate to bicarbonate, donating the electrons to a second substrate, such as NAD+ in formate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.1.2) or to a cytochrome in formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.2.1).[1]

NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenases are important in methylotrophic yeast and bacteria and are vital in the catabolism of C1 compounds such as methanol.[2] The cytochrome-dependent enzymes are more important in anaerobic metabolism in prokaryotes.[3] For example, in E. coli, the formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase is an intrinsic membrane protein with two subunits and is involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration.[4][5]

NAD-dependent reaction

Formate + NAD(+) <=> CO(2) + NADH

Cytochrome-dependent reaction

Formate + 2 ferricytochrome b1 <=> CO(2) + 2 ferrocytochrome b1 + 2 H(+)

See also

References

  1. Ferry JG (1990). "Formate dehydrogenase". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 7 (3–4): 377–82. PMID 2094290.
  2. Popov VO, Lamzin VS (1994). "NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase". Biochem. J. 301 ( Pt 3): 625–43. PMID 8053888.
  3. Jormakka M, Byrne B, Iwata S (2003). "Formate dehydrogenase--a versatile enzyme in changing environments". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13 (4): 418–23. PMID 12948771.
  4. Graham A, Boxer DH (1981). "The organization of formate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli". Biochem. J. 195 (3): 627–37. PMID 7032506.
  5. Ruiz-Herrera J, DeMoss JA (1969). "Nitrate reductase complex of Escherichia coli K-12: participation of specific formate dehydrogenase and cytochrome b1 components in nitrate reduction". J. Bacteriol. 99 (3): 720–9. PMID 4905536.

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