Fat embolism syndrome primary prevention
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Effective measurement for the primary prevention of fat embolism include early fixation of long bone fractures, external fixation with a plate and screw and use of small-diameter nails.
Pre-operative preventive measures:
- Preoperative intravenous injection of dexamethasone.
- Continuous pulse oximetry to detect hypoxemia at early stages.
- Early fixation of long-bone fracture.
- External fixation or fixation with plate and screw decreases the possibility of fat embolism than than nailing the medullary cavity and venting the medullary canal during nailing.
- If nails are needed, smaller-diameter nails and unreamed nailing may be better.
In-operation preventive measures:
- Early detection of the symptoms by careful vigilence and high degree of clinical suspicion.
- Continuous monitoring for the fall in oxygen saturation.
- An early initiation of supplemental oxygen and steroids may help in inhibiting the hypoxic insult and manifestations of full-blown FES.
- The patient should not be over sedated.
- Careful monitroing of vitals and temperature is mandatory.
- Periodic neurological assessment.
- Albumin should be used for volume resuscitation as it binds with free fatty acids and reduces lung injury.
- Jiang J, Wang H, Wang Y (2010). "[Clinical study on effect of dexamethasone in preventing fat embolism syndrome after cemented hip arthroplasty]". Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 24 (8): 913–6. PMID 20839434.
- Cavallazzi R, Cavallazzi AC (2008). "[The effect of corticosteroids on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome after long bone fracture of the lower limbs: a systematic review and meta-analysis]". J Bras Pneumol. 34 (1): 34–41. PMID 18278374.
- Wong MW, Tsui HF, Yung SH, Chan KM, Cheng JC (2004). "Continuous pulse oximeter monitoring for inapparent hypoxemia after long bone fractures". J Trauma. 56 (2): 356–62. doi:10.1097/01.TA.0000064450.02273.9B. PMID 14960980.
- Schmidt J, Sulk C, Weigand C, La Rosée K, Schneider T (2001). "[Preventing fat embolism syndrome (FES) in implantation of cemented hip endoprosthesis shafts with a trans-prosthetic drainage system (TDS)]". Biomed Tech (Berl). 46 (11): 320–4. PMID 11778316.
- Schonfeld SA, Ploysongsang Y, DiLisio R, Crissman JD, Miller E, Hammerschmidt DE; et al. (1983). "Fat embolism prophylaxis with corticosteroids. A prospective study in high-risk patients". Ann Intern Med. 99 (4): 438–43. PMID 6354030.
- Pitto RP, Kössler M, Draenert K (1998). "[Prevention of fat and bone marrow embolism in cemented total hip endoprosthesis with vacuum cement technique]". Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 136 (4): Oa24. PMID 9795426.