Emphysema historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editors-In-Chief: Mehrian Jafarizade, M.D [2], Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [3], Priyamvada Singh, MBBS [4]

Overview

The terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema were formally defined at the CIBA guest symposium of physicians in 1959. Matthew Baillie illustrated an emphysematous lung in 1789 and described the destructive character of the condition.

Historical Perspective

  • In 1679, Bonet for the first time described voluminous lungs.
  • In 1721, Ruysh described enlarged lung airspaces in emphysema.
  • In 1769, Giovanni Morgagni described nineteen cases in which the lungs were “turgid” particularly from air.
  • In 1789, Matthew Baillie illustrated an emphysematous lung and described the destructive character of the condition.
  • In 1837, René Laennec, the physician who invented the stethoscope, used the term "emphysema" in his book A Treatise on the Diseases of the Chest and of Mediate Auscultation to describe lungs that did not collapse when he opened the chest during an autopsy. He noted that they did not collapse as usual because they were full of air and the airways were filled with mucus.[1]
  • In 1842, John Hutchinson invented the spirometer, which allowed the measurement of the vital capacity of the lungs. However, his spirometer could only measure volume, not airflow.[2]
  • In 1944, Ronald Christie defined the diagnosis for emphysema based on dyspnea on exertion, after exclusion of bronchospasm, or left ventricular failure.
  • In 1947, Tiffeneau and Pinelli, and in 1950 and 1951, Gaensler described the principles of measuring airflow.
  • in 1952, Gough explained the pathology of emphysema.
  • In 1956, Barach and Bickerman described treatment for emphysema in their comprehensive textbook.
  • In 1959, the terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema were formally defined at the CIBA guest symposium of physicians.
  • In 1962, American Thoracic Society Committee on Diagnostic Standards defined the components of COPD and this definition is the foundation of COPD description today.
  • In 1964, Gross produced destruction of alveoli and hyperinflation, by injection of pancreatic extracts (papain) into the airways of guinea pigs.
  • In 1967, Reid described the pathology of emphysema and other components of COPD.
  • In 1976, Thurlbeck illustrated the various types of emphysema in his book.
  • In 2003, Choe used methylprednisolone to produce emphysema in rats. They conclude that systemic methylprednisolone increases the activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the lung and causes emphysema. [3]
  • In 2004, GOLD offered a new classification of the severity of COPD. [4]
  • In 2005, Voelkel and Taraseviciene-Stewart offered emphysema as an autoimmune vascular disease. [5]

Landmark Events in the Development of Treatment Strategies

  • In 1956, Barach and Bickerman described treatment for emphysema in their comprehensive textbook.
  • In 1980, for treatment of COPD patients, a clinical trial was performed and the use of nocturnal oxygen therapy for emphysema proved. [6]
  • In 1998, Paggiaro performed a multicentre clinical trial of corticosteroids for emphysema treatment.[7]

Below table is a summery of emphysema historical prospective:

Year Investigator Landmark event
1679 Bonet Voluminous lungs
1721 Ruysh Emphysema is enlarged lung spaces
1769 Giovanni Morgagni Nineteen cases of air filled lungs
1789 Matthew Baillie Destructive character of emphysema
1837 René Laennec Hyper-resonant lungs with his invented stethoscope
1842 John Hutchinson Spirometry invention for measurement of the vital capacity of the lungs
1944 Ronald Christie Clinical definition of emphysema
1947 Tiffeneau and Pinelli Measuring the air flow in spirometry
1952 Gough Emphysema pathology description
1956 Barach and Bickerman First description for treatment of emphysema
1959 CIBA guest symposium of physicians The terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema were formally defined
1962 American Thoracic Society Committee on Diagnostic Standards Defined the components of COPD
1967 Reid Described the pathology of emphysema and other components of COPD
1976 Thurlbeck Illustrated the various types of emphysema
1980 Oxygen therapy trial Use of nocturnal oxygen therapy for emphysema is beneficial
1998 Paggiaro Corticosteroids for emphysema treatment
2004 GOLD criteria New classification of the severity of COPD
2005 Voelkel and Taraseviciene-Stewart Emphysema as an autoimmune vascular disease

References

  1. Petty TL (2006). "The history of COPD". Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 1 (1): 3–14. PMC 2706597. PMID 18046898.
  2. Fishman AP (2005). "One hundred years of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171 (9): 941–8. doi:10.1164/rccm.200412-1685OE. PMID 15849329. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Choe KH, Taraseviciene-Stewart L, Scerbavicius R, Gera L, Tuder RM, Voelkel NF (2003). "Methylprednisolone causes matrix metalloproteinase-dependent emphysema in adult rats". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167 (11): 1516–21. doi:10.1164/rccm.200210-1207OC. PMID 12522028.
  4. "Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease - Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease - GOLD".
  5. Voelkel N, Taraseviciene-Stewart L (2005). "Emphysema: an autoimmune vascular disease?". Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2 (1): 23–5. doi:10.1513/pats.200405-033MS. PMID 16113465.
  6. "Continuous or nocturnal oxygen therapy in hypoxemic chronic obstructive lung disease: a clinical trial. Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial Group". Ann. Intern. Med. 93 (3): 391–8. 1980. PMID 6776858.
  7. Paggiaro PL, Dahle R, Bakran I, Frith L, Hollingworth K, Efthimiou J (1998). "Multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial of inhaled fluticasone propionate in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International COPD Study Group". Lancet. 351 (9105): 773–80. PMID 9519948.

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