Emphysema classification

Jump to: navigation, search

Emphysema Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Emphysema from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Chest X Ray

CT

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Emphysema classification On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Emphysema classification

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Emphysema classification

CDC on Emphysema classification

Emphysema classification in the news

Blogs on Emphysema classification

Directions to Hospitals Treating Emphysema

Risk calculators and risk factors for Emphysema classification

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mehrian Jafarizade, M.D [2]

Overview

Emphysema can be classified by location in to different types such as panacinary, centroacinary, congenital lobaremphysema, and paraseptal emphysema.

Classification

Emphysema can be classified by location into three categories:

Panacinary (panlobular):

Centroacinary (panacinar and centriacinar):

Other types:

Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE)

CLE results in over-expansion of a pulmonary lobe, and resultant compression of the remaining lobes of the ipsi-lateral lung (and possibly also the contralateral lung). There is bronchial narrowing because of weakened or absent bronchial cartilage.[3] There may be congenital extrinsic compression, commonly by an abnormally large pulmonary artery. This causes malformation of bronchial cartilage, making them soft and collapsible.[3] CLE is a potentially reversible (yet possibly life-threatening) cause of respiratory distress in the neonate.[3]

Paraseptal emphysema

Para-septal emphysema is a type of emphysema which involves the alveolar ducts and sacs at the lung periphery. The emphysematous areas are sub-pleural in location and often surrounded by inter-lobular septa (hence the name). It may be an incidental finding in young adults, and may be associated with spontaneous pneumothorax. It may also be seen in older patients with centri-lobular emphysema. Both centri-lobular and para-septal emphysema may progress to bullous emphysema. A bulla is defined as being at least 1 cm in diameter, and with a wall less than 1 mm thick. Bullae are thought to arise by air trapping in emphysematous spaces, causing local expansion.[4]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Emphysema". Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  2. Anderson AE, Foraker AG (1973). "Centrilobular emphysema and panlobular emphysema: two different diseases". Thorax. 28 (5): 547–50. doi:10.1136/thx.28.5.547. PMC 470076. PMID 4784376. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 eMedicine Specialties > Radiology > Pediatrics --> Congenital Lobar Emphysema Author: Beverly P Wood, MD, MS, PhD, University of Southern California. Updated: December 1, 2008
  4. Webb WR, Higgins CB. Thoracic Imaging. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins 2005.



Linked-in.jpg