Diabetes mellitus type 2 dietary management

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 Microchapters

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Patient information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Dietary Management

Medical Therapy

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Diabetes mellitus

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ADA Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2014

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Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Gestational Diabetes

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Pre-Diabetics

Impaired Fasting Glycaemia
Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Diabetics

Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
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Pathophysiology

Causes

Epidemiology and Demographics

Differentiating Diabetes Mellitus from other Diseases

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

General Management

Dietary Management

Medical Therapy

Diabetes with Hypertension Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Social Issues

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S. [2]; Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [3]

Overview

International guidelines recommend a dietary modification, increased physical activity and weight reduction for the better control of type 2 diabetes

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists - General Nutrition Recommendations (DO NOT EDIT) [1]

Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1. Weight control and a controlled-energy diet are essential components of diabetes mellitus management to lower glucose levels and to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk is lowest when the body mass index is less than 25 kg/m2.

2. Physical activity of 30 to 90 minutes per day lowers glucose levels and assists with weight loss or weight maintenance.

3. Salt restriction to less than 1.5 g/d, in association with increased intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, is helpful in managing hypertension.

4. If patients choose to consume alcohol, intake should be limited to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men.

5. Dietary modification to achieve target ranges for glucose, lipids, and blood pressure is a tertiary preventive strategy for the complications of diabetes mellitus.

American Diabetes Association - General Nutrition Recommendations (DO NOT EDIT) [2]

Nutrition Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes

  • Individuals with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to implement lifestyle modifications that reduce intakes of energy, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium and to increase physical activity in an effort to improve glycemia, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure. (E)
  • Plasma glucose monitoring can be used to determine whether adjustments in foods and meals will be sufficient to achieve blood glucose goals or if medication(s) needs to be combined with MNT. (E)

References

  1. Rodbard HW, Blonde L, Braithwaite SS, Brett EM, Cobin RH, Handelsman Y et al. (2007). "American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus.". Endocr Pract 13 Suppl 1: 1-68. PMID 17613449.
  2. American Diabetes Association. Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, Apovian CM, Clark NG et al. (2008). "Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association.". Diabetes Care 31 Suppl 1: S61-78. doi:10.2337/dc08-S061. PMID 18165339.

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