Coronary artery bypass surgery overview

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Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Microchapters

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Patient Information

Overview

Pathophysiology

Saphenous Vein Graft Disease
Other Non-Atherosclerotic Saphenous Vein Graft Diseases

Indications for CABG

Prognosis

Diagnosis

Imaging in the Patient Undergoing CABG

Chest X Ray

Angiography

CT Angiography
MRI Angiography

Trans-Esophageal Echocardiography

Treatment

Goals of Treatment

Perioperative Management

Perioperative Monitoring

Electrocardiographic Monitoring
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization
Central Nervous System Monitoring

Surgical Procedure

Anesthetic Considerations
Intervention in left main coronary artery disease
The Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Procedure (Simplified)
Minimally Invasive CABG
Hybrid coronary revascularization
Conduits Used for Bypass
Videos on Spahenous Vein Graft Harvesting
Videos on Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

Post-Operative Care and Complications

Recommendation for Duration of DAPT in Patients With ACS Treated With CABG

Special Scenarios

Anomalous Coronary Arteries
COPD/Respiratory Insufficiency
Existing Renal Disease
Concomitant Valvular Disease
Previous Cardiac Surgery
Menopause
Carotid Disease evaluation before surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editors-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2], Mohammed A. Sbeih, M.D. [3]

Synonyms and keywords: Coronary artery bypass grafting, and colloquially heart bypass, bypass, bypass surgery, open heart surgery, or CABG (pronounced like cabbage), aortocoronary bypass (ACB). The term Coronary Artery Graft Surgery (CAGS) is often used outside the United States and should not be confused with Coronary Angiography (CAG). OPCAB refers to Off-pump coronary artery bypass, a procedure during which the patient is not placed on extracorporeal circulation ("the pump").

Overview

Coronary artery bypass surgery is a surgical revascularization procedure that is used to circumvent or bypass blockages in the epicardial coronary arteries associated with acute coronary syndromes (including ST elevation MI, non ST elevation MI, unstable angina) and stable angina. The technique was pioneered by Argentine cardiac surgeon René Favaloro at the Cleveland Clinic in the late 1960s.[1] As part of the procedure, arteries or veins from elsewhere in the patient's body are grafted from the aorta to the coronary arteries to bypass atherosclerotic narrowings and improve the blood supply to the coronary circulation supplying the myocardium (heart muscle). This surgery is usually performed with the heart stopped, necessitating the usage of cardiopulmonary bypass. However, recent advances allow the procedure to be performed with the heart beating and through smaller incisions. Currently, about 500,000 CABGs are performed in the United States each year.

References

  1. Captur G. Memento for Rene Favaloro. Tex Heart Inst J. 2004;31(1):47-60. PMID 15061628. Free Full Text.



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