Charles-Joseph Bouchard (September 6, 1837 - 1915) was a French pathologist who was born in the department of Haute-Marne. He studied medicine at the Universities of Lyon and Paris, where he obtained his doctorate in 1866. In 1874 he became a physician at Bicêtre Hospital, and in 1879 was appointed chair of general pathology. In 1886 he became a member of the Academie de Médecine.
Bouchard is remembered for his work with infectious and nutritional diseases. He was a student of Jean Charcot, and with Charcot described a condition that would later be known as Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm. This is a small aneurysm on cerebral perforated vessels that may cause intracranial hemorrhages. Bouchard wrote about this aneurysm in his doctorate thesis Étude sur quelques points de la pathogénie des hémorrhagies cérébrales. His name is also lent to the eponymous Bouchard's nodes, which are bony outgrowths of the proximal interphalangeal joints, and a sign of osteoarthritis.
Bouchard was the author of Traité de Pathologie Générale, a compendium of medical pathology.