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Bromethalin is a rodenticide which poisons the central nervous system by uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which causes a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Decreased ATP ultimately results in increased intracranial pressure, which damages neuronal axons. This damage to the central nervous system can cause paralysis, convulsions, and death [1].

Risk of poisoning

There are no tests that will diagnose Bromethalin poisoning in pets, but signs to watch for include severe muscle tremors, hyperexcitability, fits, extreme sensitivity to being touched (hyperesthesia) and seizures that appear to be caused by light or noise. Secondary Bromethalin poisoning can occur in dogs or cats who eat a mouse killed by Bromethalin. In such cases, the pet owner may notice the "mild" symptoms such as loss of ability to bark, loss of appetite, depression, lethargy and coma.

There is no antidote for Bromethalin, but symptoms can be treated with corticosteroids. Clinical studies indicate that symptoms return as soon as the corticosteroids are discontinued.

Its CAS number is [63333-35-7] and its SMILES structure is CN(C2=C(Br)C=C (Br)C=C2Br) C1=C(C(F)(F)F) C=C([N+]([O-])=O) C=C1[N+]([O-])=O.