Aortic stenosis causes

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Overview

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Causes

Differentiating Aortic Stenosis from other Diseases

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

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Cardiac Stress Test

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Echocardiography

Cardiac Catheterization

Aortic Valve Area

Aortic Valve Area Calculation

Treatment

General Approach

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvotomy (PABV) or Aortic Valvuloplasty

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

TAVR vs SAVR
Critical Pathway
Patient Selection
Imaging
Evaluation
Valve Types
TAVR Procedure
Post TAVR management
AHA/ACC Guideline Recommendations

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Prevention

Precautions and Prophylaxis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Mohammed A. Sbeih, M.D. [2]; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [3]; Vendhan Ramanujam M.B.B.S [4]; Usama Talib, BSc, MD [5] Mandana Chitsazan, M.D. [6] Assistant Editor-In-Chief: Kristin Feeney, B.S. [7]

Overview

Aortic stenosis can be either congenital or acquired, and its common causes vary between different age groups and between different populations. Rheumatic heart disease remains the most common cause of aortic stenosis worldwide. Calcification of the aortic valve is the most common cause of aortic stenosis in North America and Europe. While calcification of congenital bicuspid aortic valve is the most common cause of aortic stenosis in people less than 70 years of age, acquired degenerative calcific aortic stenosis is the most common cause in older patients above the age of 70 years.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated. Aortic stenosis is a progressive disease and does not have a life threatening cause. However, complications resulting from untreated disease name is common.

Common Causes

Common causes of aortic stenosis may include:[1][2][3][4]

Causes by Location of Stenosis

Valvular Aortic Stenosis

Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis

Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis

Causes by Age Groups

Under Age 70

Over Age 70

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Age-induced calcification, aortic sclerosis, aortitis, bicuspid aortic valve or bicommissural aortic valve, prosthetic aortic valve, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypoplastic aortic annulus, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, quadricuspid aortic valve, rheumatic fever, tricuspid aortic valve with commissural fushion
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic Sweet syndrome
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Williams syndrome, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 4, alkaptonuria, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, chromosome 15q deletion syndromes, Fabry's disease, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm syndrome, Fryns-Van den Berghe syndrome, homozygous type II hypercholesterolemia, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, mucolipidosis III gamma, Onat syndrome, Paget's disease, Singleton-Merten syndrome, Sweet syndrome, Turner syndrome, unicommissural aortic valve or unicuspid aortic valve
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Prosthetic aortic valve, radiation
Infectious Disease rheumatic fever
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Paget's disease
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 4, alkaptonuria, Fabry's disease, Fryns-Van den Berghe syndrome, homozygous type II hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, mucolipidosis III gamma, ochronosis, Onat syndrome, Paget's disease
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Mordi I, Tzemos N (2012). "Bicuspid aortic valve disease: a comprehensive review". Cardiol Res Pract. 2012: 196037. doi:10.1155/2012/196037. PMC 3368178. PMID 22685681.
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