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Alloimmunity is a condition in which the body gains immunity, from another individual of the same species, against its own cells. Alloimmunity should not be confused with autoimmunity in which the body's immune system attacks its own cells without being provoked or influenced by substances or cells from another member of the same species.

If either alloimmunity or autoimmunity is directed against red blood cells (RBCs), the direct Coombs test is positive.

Alloimmunity can occur