Abundances of the elements (data page)

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<< Chemical elements data references

Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust

  • C1 — Crust: CRC Handbook
  • C2 — Crust: Kaye & Laby
  • C3 — Crust: Greenwood
  • C4 — Crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • C5 — Crust: Ahrens (Wänke)
  • C6 — Crust: Ahrens (Weaver)
  • U1 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • U2 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Shaw)

Mass fraction, in kg/kg.

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 U1 U2
1 H hydrogen 1.40×10−3 1.520×10−3
2 He helium 8×10−9
3 Li lithium 2.0×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.8×10−5 1.3×10−5 1.37×10−5 2.0×10−5 2.2×10−5
4 Be beryllium 2.8×10−6 2.0×10−6 2×10−6 1.500×10−6 3.000×10−6
5 B boron 1.0×10−5 7.0×10−6 9×10−6 1.0000×10−5 1.5000×10−5
6 C carbon 2.00×10−4 1.80×10−4 3.76×10−3
7 N nitrogen 1.9×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.9×10−5
8 O oxygen 4.61×10−1 3.7×10−1 4.55000×10−1
9 F fluorine 5.85×10−4 4.6×10−4 5.44×10−4 5.25×10−4
10 Ne neon 5×10−9
11 Na sodium 2.36×10−2 2.3×10−2 2.2700×10−2 2.3000×10−2 2.4400×10−2 3.1000×10−2 2.89×10−2 2.57×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 2.33×10−2 2.8×10−2 2.7640×10−2 3.20×10−2 2.37×10−2 1.69×10−2 1.33×10−2 1.35×10−2
13 Al aluminium 8.23×10−2 8.0×10−2 8.3000×10−2 8.4100×10−2 8.3050×10−2 8.5200×10−2 8.0400×10−2 7.7400×10−2
14 Si silicon 2.82×10−1 2.7×10−1 2.72000×10−1 2.677×10−1 2.81×10−1 2.95×10−1 3.08×10−1 3.04×10−1
15 P phosphorus 1.05×10−3 1.0×10−3 1.120×10−3 7.63×10−4 8.30×10−4
16 S sulfur 3.50×10−4 3.0×10−4 3.40×10−4 8.81×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 1.45×10−4 1.9×10−4 1.26×10−4 1.900×10−3
18 Ar argon 3.5×10−6
19 K potassium 2.09×10−2 1.7×10−2 1.8400×10−2 9.100×10−3 1.7600×10−2 1.7000×10−2 2.8000×10−2 2.5700×10−2
20 Ca calcium 4.15×10−2 5.1×10−2 4.6600×10−2 5.2900×10−2 4.9200×10−2 3.4000×10−2 3.0000×10−2 2.9500×10−2
21 Sc scandium 2.2×10−5 2.2×10−5 2.5×10−5 3.0×10−5 2.14×10−5 1.1×10−5 7×10−6
22 Ti titanium 5.65×10−3 8.6×10−3 6.320×10−3 5.400×10−3 5.250×10−3 3.600×10−3 3.000×10−3 3.120×10−3
23 V vanadium 1.20×10−4 1.7×10−4 1.36×10−4 2.30×10−4 1.34×10−4 6.0×10−5 5.3×10−5
24 Cr chromium 1.02×10−4 9.6×10−5 1.22×10−4 1.85×10−4 1.46×10−4 5.6×10−5 3.5×10−5 3.5×10−5
25 Mn manganese 9.50×10−4 1.0×10−3 1.060×10−3 1.400×10−3 8.47×10−4 1.000×10−3 6.00×10−4 5.27×10−4
26 Fe iron 5.63×10−2 5.8×10−2 6.2000×10−2 7.07×10−2 4.92×10−2 3.8×10−2 3.50×10−2 3.09×10−2
27 Co cobalt 2.5×10−5 2.8×10−5 2.9×10−5 2.9×10−5 2.54×10−5 1.0×10−5 1.2×10−5
28 Ni nickel 8.4×10−5 7.2×10−5 9.9×10−5 1.05×10−4 6.95×10−5 3.5×10−5 2×10−5 1.9×10−5
29 Cu copper 6.0×10−5 5.8×10−5 6.8×10−5 7.5×10−5 4.7×10−5 2.5×10−5 1.4×10−5
30 Zn zinc 7.0×10−5 8.2×10−5 7.6×10−5 8.0×10−5 7.6×10−5 7.1×10−5 5.2×10−5
31 Ga gallium 1.9×10−5 1.7×10−5 1.9×10−5 1.8×10−5 1.86×10−5 1.7×10−5 1.4×10−5
32 Ge germanium 1.5×10−6 1.3×10−6 1.5×10−6 1.6×10−6 1.32×10−6 1.6×10−6
33 As arsenic 1.8×10−6 2.0×10−6 1.8×10−6 1.0×10−6 2.03×10−6 1.5×10−6
34 Se selenium 5×10−8 5×10−8 5×10−8 5×10−8 1.53×10−7 5×10−8
35 Br bromine 2.4×10−6 4.0×10−6 2.5×10−6 6.95×10−6
36 Kr krypton 1×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 9.0×10−5 7.0×10−5 7.8×10−5 3.2×10−5 7.90×10−5 6.1×10−5 1.12×10−4 1.10×10−4
38 Sr strontium 3.70×10−4 4.5×10−4 3.84×10−4 2.60×10−4 2.93×10−4 5.03×10−4 3.50×10−4 3.16×10−4
39 Y yttrium 3.3×10−5 3.5×10−7 3.1×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.4×10−5 2.2×10−5 2.1×10−5
40 Zr zirconium 1.65×10−4 1.4×10−4 1.62×10−4 1.00×10−4 2.10×10−4 1.90×10−4 2.40×10−4
41 Nb niobium 2.0×10−5 2.0×10−5 2.0×10−5 1.1000×10−5 1.3000×10−5 2.5000×10−5 2.6000×10−5
42 Mo molybdenum 1.2×10−6 1.2×10−6 1.2×10−6 1.000×10−6 1.500×10−6
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 1×10−9 1×10−10
45 Rh rhodium 1×10−9 1×10−10
46 Pd palladium 1.5×10−8 3×10−9 1.5×10−8 1.0×10−9 5×10−10
47 Ag silver 7.5×10−8 8×10−8 8×10−8 8.0×10−8 6.95×10−8 5.0×10−8
48 Cd cadmium 1.5×10−7 1.8×10−7 1.6×10−7 9.8×10−8 1.00×10−7 9.8×10−8
49 In indium 2.5×10−7 2×10−7 2.4×10−7 5.0×10−8 6.95×10−8 5.0×10−8
50 Sn tin 2.3×10−6 1.5×10−6 2.1×10−6 2.500×10−6 5.500×10−6
51 Sb antimony 2×10−7 2×10−7 2×10−7 2.00×10−7 2.03×10−7 2.00×10−7
52 Te tellurium 1×10−9 1×10−9 2.03×10−9
53 I iodine 4.5×10−7 5×10−7 4.6×10−7 1.540×10−6
54 Xe xenon 3×10−11
55 Cs caesium 3×10−6 1.6×10−6 2.6×10−6 1.000×10−6 1.310×10−6 3.700×10−6
56 Ba barium 4.25×10−4 3.8×10−4 3.90×10−4 2.50000×10−4 5.42000×10−4 7.07000×10−4 5.50000×10−4 1070000×10−3
57 La lanthanum 3.9×10−5 5.0×10−5 3.5×10−5 1.6000×10−5 2.9000×10−5 2.8000×10−5 3.0000×10−5 3.200×10−6
58 Ce cerium 6.65×10−5 8.3×10−5 6.6×10−5 3.3000×10−5 5.4200×10−5 5.7000×10−5 6.4000×10−5 6.5000×10−5
59 Pr praseodymium 9.2×10−6 1.3×10−5 9.1×10−6 3.900×10−6 7.100×10−6
60 Nd neodymium 4.15×10−5 4.4×10−5 4.0×10−5 1.6000×10−5 2.5400×10−5 2.3000×10−5 2.6000×10−5 2.6000×10−5
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 7.05×10−6 7.7×10−6 7.0×10−6 3.500×10−6 5.590×10−6 4.100×10−6 4.500×10−6 4.500×10−6
63 Eu europium 2.0×10−6 2.2×10−6 2.1×10−6 1.100×10−6 1.407×10−6 1.090×10−6 8.80×10−7 9.40×10−7
64 Gd gadolinium 6.2×10−6 6.3×10−6 6.1×10−6 3.300×10−6 8.140×10−6 3.800×10−6 2.800×10−6
65 Tb terbium 1.2×10−6 1.0×10−6 1.2×10−6 6.00×10−7 1.020×10−6 5.30×10−7 6.40×10−7 4.80×10−7
66 Dy dysprosium 5.2×10−6 8.5×10−6 3.700×10−6 6.102×10−6 3.500×10−6
67 Ho holmium 1.3×10−6 1.6×10−6 1.3×10−6 7.80×10−7 1.860×10−6 8.00×10−7 6.20×10−7
68 Er erbium 3.5×10−6 3.6×10−6 3.5×10−6 2.200×10−6 3.390×10−6 2.300×10−6
69 Tm thulium 5.2×10−7 5.2×10−7 5×10−7 3.20×10−7 2.40×10−7 3.30×10−7
70 Yb ytterbium 3.2×10−6 3.4×10−6 3.1×10−6 2.200×10−6 3.390×10−6 1.530×10−6 2.200×10−6 1.500×10−6
71 Lu lutetium 8×10−7 8×10−7 3.00×10−7 5.76×10−7 2.30×10−7 3.20×10−7 2.30×10−7
72 Hf hafnium 3.0×10−6 2.8×10−6 3.000×10−6 3.460×10−6 4.700×10−6 5.800×10−6 5.800×10−6
73 Ta tantalum 2.0×10−6 2.4×10−6 1.7×10−6 1.000×10−6 2.203×10−6 2.200×10−6
74 W tungsten 1.25×10−6 1.0×10−6 1.2×10−6 1.000×10−6 1.310×10−6 2.000×10−6
75 Re rhenium 7×10−10 4×10−10 7×10−10 5×10−10 1.02×10−9 5×10−10
76 Os osmium 1.5×10−9 2×10−10 5×10−9 1.02×10−9
77 Ir iridium 1×10−9 2×10−10 1×10−9 1×10−10 1.02×10−9 2×10−11
78 Pt platinum 5×10−9 1×10−8
79 Au gold 4×10−9 2×10−9 4×10−9 3.0×10−9 4.07×10−9 1.8×10−9
80 Hg mercury 8.5×10−8 2×10−8 8×10−8
81 Tl thallium 8.5×10−7 4.7×10−7 7×10−7 3.60×10−7 7.50×10−7 5.20×10−7
82 Pb lead 1.4×10−5 1.0×10−5 1.3×10−5 8.000×10−6 1.5000×10−5 2.0000×10−5 1.7000×10−5
83 Bi bismuth 8.5×10−9 4×10−9 8×10−9 6.0×10−8 1.27×10−7
84 Po polonium 2×10−16
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon 4×10−19
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium 9×10−13
89 Ac actinium 5.5×10−16
90 Th thorium 9.6×10−6 5.8×10−6 8.1×10−6 3.500×10−6 5.700×10−6 1.0700×10−5 1.0000×10−5
91 Pa protactinium 1.4×10−12
92 U uranium 2.7×10−6 1.6×10−6 2.3×10−6 9.10×10−7 1.200×10−6 1.300×10−6 2.800×10−6 2.500×10−6

Sea water

  • W1 — CRC Handbook
  • W2 — Kaye & Laby

Mass per volume fraction, in kg/L.

W1 W2
1 H hydrogen 1.08×10−1 1.1×10−1
2 He helium 7×10−12 7.2×10−12
3 Li lithium 1.8×10−7 1.7×10−7
4 Be beryllium 5.6×10−12 6×10−13
5 B boron 4.44×10−6 4.4×10−6
6 C carbon 2.8×10−5 2.8×10−5
7 N nitrogen 5×10−7 1.6×10−5
8 O oxygen 8.57×10−1 8.8×10−1
9 F fluorine 1.3×10−6 1.3×10−6
10 Ne neon 1.2×10−10 1.2×10−10
11 Na sodium 1.08×10−2 1.1×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 1.29×10−3 1.3×10−3
13 Al aluminium 2×10−9 1×10−9
14 Si silicon 2.2×10−6 2.9×10−6
15 P phosphorus 6×10−8 8.8×10−8
16 S sulfur 9.05×10−4 9.0×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 1.94×10−2 1.9×10−2
18 Ar argon 4.5×10−7 4.5×10−7
19 K potassium 3.99×10−4 3.9×10−4
20 Ca calcium 4.12×10−4 4.1×10−4
21 Sc scandium 6×10−13 <4×10−12
22 Ti titanium 1×10−9 1×10−9
23 V vanadium 2.5×10−9 1.9×10−9
24 Cr chromium 3×10−10 2×10−10
25 Mn manganese 2×10−10 1.9×10−9
26 Fe iron 2×10−9 3.4×10−9
27 Co cobalt 2×10−11 3.9×10−10
28 Ni nickel 5.6×10−10 6.6×10−9
29 Cu copper 2.5×10−10 2.3×10−8
30 Zn zinc 4.9×10−9 1.1×10−8
31 Ga gallium 3×10−11 3×10−11
32 Ge germanium 5×10−11 6×10−11
33 As arsenic 3.7×10−9 2.6×10−9
34 Se selenium 2×10−10 9.0×10−11
35 Br bromine 6.73×10−5 6.7×10−5
36 Kr krypton 2.1×10−10 2.1×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 1.2×10−7 1.2×10−7
38 Sr strontium 7.9×10−6 8.1×10−6
39 Y yttrium 1.3×10−11 1.3×10−12
40 Zr zirconium 3×10−11 2.6×10−11
41 Nb niobium 1×10−11 1.5×10−11
42 Mo molybdenum 1×10−8 1.0×10−8
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 7×10−13
45 Rh rhodium
46 Pd palladium
47 Ag silver 4×10−11 2.8×10−10
48 Cd cadmium 1.1×10−10 1.1×10−10
49 In indium 2×10−8
50 Sn tin 4×10−12 8.1×10−10
51 Sb antimony 2.4×10−10 3.3×10−10
52 Te tellurium
53 I iodine 6×10−8 6.4×10−8
54 Xe xenon 5×10−11 4.7×10−11
55 Cs caesium 3×10−10 3.0×10−10
56 Ba barium 1.3×10−8 2.1×10−8
57 La lanthanum 3.4×10−12 3.4×10−12
58 Ce cerium 1.2×10−12 1.2×10−12
59 Pr praseodymium 6.4×10−13 6.4×10−13
60 Nd neodymium 2.8×10−12 2.8×10−12
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 4.5×10−13 4.5×10−13
63 Eu europium 1.3×10−13 1.3×10−13
64 Gd gadolinium 7×10−13 7.0×10−13
65 Tb terbium 1.4×10−13 1.4×10−12
66 Dy dysprosium 9.1×10−13 9.1×10−13
67 Ho holmium 2.2×10−13 2.2×10−13
68 Er erbium 8.7×10−13 8.7×10−12
69 Tm thulium 1.7×10−13 1.7×10−13
70 Yb ytterbium 8.2×10−13 8.2×10−13
71 Lu lutetium 1.5×10−13 1.5×10−13
72 Hf hafnium 7×10−12 <8×10−12
73 Ta tantalum 2×10−12 <2.5×10−12
74 W tungsten 1×10−10 <1×10−12
75 Re rhenium 4×10−12
76 Os osmium
77 Ir iridium
78 Pt platinum
79 Au gold 4×10−12 1.1×10−11
80 Hg mercury 3×10−11 1.5×10−10
81 Tl thallium 1.9×10−11
82 Pb lead 3×10−11 3×10−11
83 Bi bismuth 2×10−11 2×10−11
84 Po polonium 1.5×10−20
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon 6×10−22
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium 8.9×10−17
89 Ac actinium
90 Th thorium 1×10−12 1.5×10−12
91 Pa protactinium 5×10−17
92 U uranium 3.2×10−9 3.3×10−9

Sun and solar system

  • S1 — Sun: Kaye & Laby
  • Y1 — Solar system: Kaye & Laby
  • Y2 — Solar system: Ahrens, with uncertainty s (%)

Atom mole fraction relative to silicon = 1.

S1 Y1 Y2
1 H hydrogen 2.8×104 2.8×104* 2.79×104
2 He helium 2.7×103 2.7×103* 2.72×103
3 Li lithium 4×10−7 5.7×10−5 5.71×10−5 (9.2%)
4 Be beryllium 4×10−7 7×10−7 7.3×10−7 (9.5%)
5 B boron 1.1×10−5 2.1×10−5 2.12×10−5 (10%)
6 C carbon 1.0×101 1.0×101* 1.01×101
7 N nitrogen 3.1×100 3.1×100* 3.13×100
8 O oxygen 2.4×101 2.4×101* 2.38×101 (10%)
9 F fluorine about 10−3 8.5×10−4 8.43×10−4 (15%)
10 Ne neon 3×100 3×100* 3.44×100 (14%)
11 Na sodium 6.0×10−2 5.7×10−2 5.74×10−2 (7.1%)
12 Mg magnesium 1.0×100 1.1×100 1.074×100 (3.8%)
13 Al aluminium 8.3×10−2 8.5×10−2 8.49×10−2 (3.6%)
14 Si silicon 1.0×100 1.0×100 1.00×100 (4.4%)
15 P phosphorus 8×10−3 1.0×10−2 1.04×10−2 (10%)
16 S sulfur 4.5×10−1 5.2×10−1 5.15×10−1 (13%)
17 Cl chlorine about 9×10−3 5.2×10−3 5.240×10−3 (15%)
18 Ar argon 1.0×10−1* 1.0×10−1* 1.01×10−1 (6%)
19 K potassium 3.7×10−3 3.8×10−3 3.770×10−3 (7.7%)
20 Ca calcium 6.4×10−2 6.1×10−2 6.11×10−2 (7.1%)
21 Sc scandium 3.5×10−5 3.4×10−5 3.42×10−5 (8.6%)
22 Ti titanium 2.7×10−3 2.4×10−3 2.400×10−3 (5.0%)
23 V vanadium 2.8×10−4 2.9×10−4 2.93×10−4 (5.1%)
24 Cr chromium 1.3×10−2 1.3×10−2 1.35×10−2 (7.6%)
25 Mn manganese 6.9×10−3 9.5×10−3 9.550×10−3 (9.6%)
26 Fe iron 9.0×10−1 9.0×10−1 9.00×10−1 (2.7%)
27 Co cobalt 2.3×10−3 2.3×10−3 2.250×10−3 (6.6%)
28 Ni nickel 5.0×10−2 5.0×10−2 4.93×10−2 (5.1%)
29 Cu copper 4.5×10−4 5.2×10−4 5.22×10−4 (11%)
30 Zn zinc 1.1×10−3 1.3×10−3 1.260×10−3 (4.4%)
31 Ga gallium 2.1×10−5 3.8×10−5 3.78×10−5 (6.9%)
32 Ge germanium 7.2×10−5 1.2×10−4 1.19×10−4 (9.6%)
33 As arsenic 6.6×10−6 6.56×10−6 (12%)
34 Se selenium 6.3×10−5 6.21×10−5 (6.4%)
35 Br bromine 1.2×10−5 1.18×10−5 (19%)
36 Kr krypton 4.8×10−5 4.5×10−5 (18%)
37 Rb rubidium 1.1×10−5 7.0×10−6 7.09×10−6 (6.6%)
38 Sr strontium 2.2×10−5 2.4×10−5 2.35×10−5 (8.1%)
39 Y yttrium 4.9×10−6 4.6×10−6 4.64×10−6 (6.0%)
40 Zr zirconium 1.12×10−5 1.14×10−5 1.14×10−5 (6.4%)
41 Nb niobium 7×10−7 7.0×10−7 6.98×10−7 (1.4%)
42 Mo molybdenum 2.3×10−6 2.6×10−6 2.55×10−6 (5.5%)
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 1.9×10−6 1.9×10−6 1.86×10−6 (5.4%)
45 Rh rhodium 4×10−7 3.4×10−7 3.44×10−7 (8%)
46 Pd palladium 1.4×10−6 1.4×10−6 1.39×10−6 (6.6%)
47 Ag silver about 2×10−7 4.9×10−7 4.86×10−7 (2.9%)
48 Cd cadmium 2.0×10−6 1.6×10−6 1.61×10−6 (6.5%)
49 In indium about 1.3×10−6 1.9×10−7 1.84×10−7 (6.4%)
50 Sn tin about 3×10−6 3.9×10−6 3.82×10−6 (9.4%)
51 Sb antimony about 3×10−7 3.1×10−7 3.09×10−7 (18%)
52 Te tellurium 4.9×10−6 4.81×10−6 (10%)
53 I iodine 9×10−7 9.0×10−7 (21%)
54 Xe xenon 4.8×10−6 4.7×10−6 (20%)
55 Cs caesium 3.7×10−7 3.72×10−7 (5.6%)
56 Ba barium 3.8×10−6 4.5×10−6 4.49×10−6 (6.3%)
57 La lanthanum 5×10−7 4.4×10−7 4.460×10−7 (2.0%)
58 Ce cerium 1.0×10−6 1.1×10−6 1.136×10−6 (1.7%)
59 Pr praseodymium 1.4×10−7 1.7×10−7 1.669×10−7 (2.4%)
60 Nd neodymium 9×10−7 8.3×10−7 8.279×10−7 (1.3%)
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 3×10−7 2.6×10−7 2.582×10−7 (1.3%)
63 Eu europium 9×10−8 9.7×10−8 9.73×10−8 (1.6%)
64 Gd gadolinium 3.7×10−7 3.3×10−7 3.300×10−7 (1.4%)
65 Tb terbium about 2×10−8 6.0×10−8 6.03×10−8 (2.2%)
66 Dy dysprosium 3.5×10−7 4.0×10−7 3.942×10−7 (1.4%)
67 Ho holmium about 5×10−8 8.9×10−8 8.89×10−8 (2.4%)
68 Er erbium 2.4×10−7 2.5×10−7 2.508×10−7 (1.3%)
69 Tm thulium about 3×10−8 3.8×10−8 3.78×10−8 (2.3%)
70 Yb ytterbium 3.4×10−7 2.5×10−7 2.479×10−7 (1.6%)
71 Lu lutetium about 1.5×10−7 3.7×10−8 3.67×10−8 (1.3%)
72 Hf hafnium 2.1×10−7 1.5×10−7 1.54×10−7 [(1.9%)]
73 Ta tantalum 3.8×10−8 2.07×10−8 (1.8%)
74 W tungsten about 3.6×10−7 1.3×10−7 1.33×10−7 (5.1%)
75 Re rhenium 5×10−8 5.17×10−8 (9.4%)
76 Os osmium 8×10−7 6.7×10−7 6.75×10−7 (6.3%)
77 Ir iridium 6×10−7 6.6×10−7 6.61×10−7 (6.1%)
78 Pt platinum about 1.8×10−6 1.34×10−6 1.34×10−6 (7.4%)
79 Au gold about 3×10−7 1.9×10−7 1.87×10−7 (15%)
80 Hg mercury 3.4×10−7 3.4×10−7 (12%)
81 Tl thallium about 2×10−7 1.9×10−7 1.84×10−7 (9.4%)
82 Pb lead 2.0×10−6 3.1×10−6 3.15×10−6 (7.8%)
83 Bi bismuth 1.4×10−7 1.44×10−7 (8.2%)
84 Po polonium
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium
89 Ac actinium
90 Th thorium 5×10−8 4.5×10−8 3.35×10−8 (5.7%)
91 Pa protactinium
92 U uranium 1.8×10−8 9.0×10−9 (8.4%)

Notes

Due to the estimate nature of these values, no single recommendations are given. All values are normalized for these tables. Underlined zeroes indicate figures of indeterminable significance that were present in the source notation.

References

CRC Handbook

From these sources in an online version of David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 14, Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics; Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea:

  • R.S. Carmichael (ed.), CRC Practical Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, (1989).
  • I. Bodek et al., Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon Press, New York, (1988).
  • A.B. Ronov, A.A. Yaroshevsky, Earth's Crust Geochemistry, in Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences, R.W. Fairbridge (ed.), Van Nostrand, New York, (1969).
Estimated abundance of the elements in the continental crust (C1) and in seawater near the surface (W1). The median values of reported measurements are given. Concentrations of the less abundant elements may vary with location by several orders of magnitude.

Kaye & Laby

National Physical Laboratory, Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements, B.E.J. Pagel

Abundances in sea water (W2) and in crustal rocks (C2) from:
For the sun (S1) and the solar system (Y1) from:
  • N. Grevesse, E. Anders, J. Waddington (ed.) in Cosmic Abundances of Matter, Amer. Inst. Phys., New York, p. 1. (1988).
Except solar iron abundance from:
  • H. Holweger, A. Bard, A. Kock, M. Kock, Astron. Astrophys., 249, 545. (1991).
Accuracy of the solar abundances varies between ± 10% and a factor of two, values more uncertain than that are marked with "about". The solar system abundances are mainly derived from carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and are assumed generally accurate to ± 10% or better. Solar system abundances based on other sources are marked with asterisks (*).

Greenwood

A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997). ISBN 0-7506-3365-4 Appendix 4, Abundance of Elements in Crustal Rocks.

From this source with some modifications and additions of later data:
  • W.S. Fyfe, Geochemistry, Oxford University Press, (1974).
Further referring to:
  • C.K. Jorgensen, Comments Astrophys. 17, 49-101 (1993).
Values are subject to various geological assumptions but assumed acceptable as an indication of elemental abundance in crustal rocks (C3).

Ahrens

Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995). ISBN 0-87590-851-9 Composition of the Solar System, Planets, Meteorites, and Major Terrestrial Reservoirs, Horton E. Newsom. Tables 1, 14, 15.

Bulk continental crust (C4) and upper continental crust (U1) from:
  • S.R. Taylor, S.M. McLennan, The continental crust: Its composition and evolution, Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, 330 pp. (1985).
Upper continental crust (U2) from:
  • D.M. Shaw, J. Dostal, R.R. Keays, Additional estimates of continental surface Precambrian shield composition in Canada, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 40, 73-83, (1976).
Bulk continental crust (C5) from:
  • H. Wänke, G. Dreibus, E. Jagoutz, Mantle chemistry and accretion history of the Earth, in Archean Geochemistry, A. Kröner, G.N. Hanson, A.M. Goodwin (eds.), pp. l-24, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1984).
Bulk continental crust (C6) from:
  • B.L. Weaver, J. Tamey, Major and trace element composition of the continental lithosphere, in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 15, H.N. Pollack, V.R. Murthy (eds.) pp. 39-68, Pergamon, Oxford, (1984).
Solar system (Y2) from:
  • E. Anders, N. Grevesse, Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 197-214, (1989).

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