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Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 1; 20-alpha (3-alpha)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase)
PBB Protein AKR1C1 image.jpg
PDB rendering based on 1ihi.
Available structures: 1ihi, 1j96, 1mrq, 1xjb, 2hdj
Symbol(s) AKR1C1; C9; 2-ALPHA-HSD; 20-ALPHA-HSD; DD1; DDH; DDH1; H-37; HAKRC; MBAB; MGC8954; DD; AKR1C-pseudo; BABP; DD2; DDH2; HAKRD; HBAB; MCDR2
External IDs OMIM: 600449 MGI1933427 Homologene84695
RNA expression pattern

PBB GE AKR1C1 204151 x at tn.png

PBB GE AKR1C1 209699 x at tn.png

PBB GE AKR1C1 211653 x at tn.png

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 1645 83702
Ensembl ENSG00000151632 ENSMUSG00000021210
Uniprot P52895 Q3UEM0
Refseq NM_001353 (mRNA)
NP_001344 (protein)
NM_030611 (mRNA)
NP_085114 (protein)
Location Chr 10: 5.02 - 5.04 Mb Chr 13: 4.43 - 4.46 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 1; 20-alpha (3-alpha)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), also known as AKR1C1, is a human gene.[1]

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of progesterone to the inactive form 20-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14.[1]


Further reading

  • Ciaccio PJ, Jaiswal AK, Tew KD (1994). "Regulation of human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase by Michael acceptor xenobiotics.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (22): 15558–62. PMID 7515059. 
  • Khanna M, Qin KN, Cheng KC (1995). "Distribution of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat brain and molecular cloning of multiple cDNAs encoding structurally related proteins in humans.". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 53 (1-6): 41–6. PMID 7626489. 
  • Khanna M, Qin KN, Klisak I; et al. (1995). "Localization of multiple human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH1 and DDH2) and chlordecone reductase (CHDR) genes in chromosome 10 by the polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization.". Genomics. 25 (2): 588–90. PMID 7789999. 
  • Ciaccio PJ, Tew KD (1994). "cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of a human colon dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1186 (1-2): 129–32. PMID 8011662. 
  • Lou H, Hammond L, Sharma V; et al. (1994). "Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of a novel human hepatic dihydrodiol dehydrogenase with high affinity bile acid binding.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (11): 8416–22. PMID 8132567. 
  • Deyashiki Y, Ogasawara A, Nakayama T; et al. (1994). "Molecular cloning of two human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzymes that are identical with chlordecone reductase and bile-acid binder.". Biochem. J. 299 ( Pt 2): 545–52. PMID 8172617. 
  • Qin KN, New MI, Cheng KC (1994). "Molecular cloning of multiple cDNAs encoding human enzymes structurally related to 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 46 (6): 673–9. PMID 8274401. 
  • Stolz A, Hammond L, Lou H; et al. (1993). "cDNA cloning and expression of the human hepatic bile acid-binding protein. A member of the monomeric reductase gene family.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (14): 10448–57. PMID 8486699. 
  • Hara A, Matsuura K, Tamada Y; et al. (1996). "Relationship of human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenases to hepatic bile-acid-binding protein and an oxidoreductase of human colon cells.". Biochem. J. 313 ( Pt 2): 373–6. PMID 8573067. 
  • O'connor T, Ireland LS, Harrison DJ, Hayes JD (1999). "Major differences exist in the function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the principal human aldo-keto reductase AKR1 family members.". Biochem. J. 343 Pt 2: 487–504. PMID 10510318. 
  • Nishizawa M, Nakajima T, Yasuda K; et al. (2000). "Close kinship of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene with three aldo-keto reductase genes.". Genes Cells. 5 (2): 111–25. PMID 10672042. 
  • Zhang Y, Dufort I, Rheault P, Luu-The V (2000). "Characterization of a human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.". J. Mol. Endocrinol. 25 (2): 221–8. PMID 11013348. 
  • Nahoum V, Gangloff A, Legrand P; et al. (2001). "Structure of the human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 in complex with testosterone and NADP at 1.25-A resolution.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45): 42091–8. PMID 11514561. doi:10.1074/jbc.M105610200. 
  • Chen CY, Hsu CP, Hsu NY; et al. (2002). "Expression of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase in the resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer.". Oncol. Rep. 9 (3): 515–9. PMID 11956619. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH; et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. PMID 12477932. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. 
  • Yang MD, Wu CC, Chiou SH; et al. (2003). "Reduction of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase expression in resected hepatocellular carcinoma.". Oncol. Rep. 10 (2): 271–6. PMID 12579257. 
  • Nakajima T, Yasuda K, Nishizawa M; et al. (2003). "Expression of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA in human endometrium and decidua.". Endocr. J. 50 (1): 105–11. PMID 12733716. 
  • Couture JF, Legrand P, Cantin L; et al. (2003). "Human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: crystallographic and site-directed mutagenesis studies lead to the identification of an alternative binding site for C21-steroids.". J. Mol. Biol. 331 (3): 593–604. PMID 12899831. 
  • Agapova OA, Yang P, Wang WH; et al. (2003). "Altered expression of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in human glaucomatous optic nerve head astrocytes.". Neurobiol. Dis. 14 (1): 63–73. PMID 13678667. 
  • Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV; et al. (2004). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.". Nature. 429 (6990): 375–81. PMID 15164054. doi:10.1038/nature02462.